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Bo Shen, Ang Chen, Hope Tolley and Kristin A. Scrabis

Guided by the interest-based motivation theory, this study examined the extent to which personal interest and situational interest accounted for boys’ and girls’ learning outcome in a middle school physical education dance unit. Personal and situational interests, physical activity intensity, and skill/knowledge outcome were measured in a random student sample (N = 57). Girls demonstrated higher personal interest in dance than the boys, but both groups were equally motivated with situational interest. Although the girls were not as physically active as boys, their skill/knowledge outcome measures were higher than those of the boys. It appears that gender may have little impact on the motivational effect of situational interest and that girls’ in-class learning might have higher quality than that of boys as a result of higher personal interest. The findings indicate that situational interest may motivate all students, but it is necessary to enhance personal interest in order for them to engage in quality learning.

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Ang Chen and Yubing Wang

This article focuses on the research on interest, especially situational interest, in physical education. Interest has been considered a powerful motivator for children and adolescents. Based on a conceptualization of individual and situational interest, a reasonable size of evidence has been accumulated showing that situational interest motivates students to engage in physical activity. The evidence also shows that situational interest may have little impact on learning achievement. It, however, can be controlled and manipulated by teachers to create a situationally interesting learning environment to enhance engagement. The lack of studies on individual interest and its development has been identified as a void in this line of research. We argue that it is necessary to strengthen the research on individual interest and its interaction with situational interest to fully understand the four-phase theoretical model of interest development in the physical activity domain (Renninger & Hidi, 2016).

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John Valentine

national interest. However, research reveals that this decision was not necessarily made because it was in the national interest, but more so to assist the new struggling private television network, CTV. The important content, allegedly linked to cultural citizenship, was not the national championship, but

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Aaron J. Coutts

, there are circumstances where the public trust can be put at risk. A conflict of interest (COI) from an author, a reviewer, or an editor can influence the trustworthiness of a paper. In this editorial, I examine the potential sources of COI in sport-related research and discuss how they affect the

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Cédric Roure and Denis Pasco

When participating in a learning task, students differ in the level of intensity, attention and enjoyment that characterizes their engagement. Such differences may reflect the fluctuation of situational interest, which is an affective state that is aroused by the characteristics of the environment

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Bo Shen and Ang Chen

Using the model of domain learning as a theoretical framework, the study was designed to examine the extent to which learners’ initial learning profiles based on previously acquired knowledge, learning strategy application, and interest-based motivation were distinctive in learning softball. Participants were 177 sixth-graders from three middle schools. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to determine what kinds of learning profiles would result from the interactions among prior knowledge, learning strategies, and interest. The results revealed that individual learners could be classified into subgroups with distinctive learning characteristics. It is supported that learning in physical education is a progressive process that involves both cognitive and affective dimensions. An effective physical education curriculum should address both knowledge and skill acquisition and motivation simultaneously.

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Xihe Zhu, Senlin Chen and James Parrott

This study examined adolescents’ interest in aerobic fitness testing and its relation to the test performances. Adolescents (N = 356) from three middle schools participated in the study. The participants took two aerobic fitness tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) and One-Mile Run (1MR) with a two-day interval, and completed two interest scales immediately after each test. Test performances, interest, and body mass index data were collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance/covariance, and hierarchical regression analyses. Student situational and personal interests were low-to-moderate overall in both aerobic fitness tests. Boys reported significantly higher situational interest than girls, but there was no gender difference in personal interest. Personal interest was a significant predictor for PACER (b=.27) and 1MR (b=-.37). The predictability of situational interest to testing performances varied between PACER and 1MR. PACER and 1MR might have rendered distinct motivational stimuli that led to the varied predicting power of situational interest.

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Alex C. Garn

Multidimensional measurement is a common theme in motivation research because many constructs are conceptualized as having an overarching general factor (e.g., situational interest) and specific dimensions (e.g., attention demand, challenge, exploration intention, instant enjoyment, novelty). This review addresses current issues associated with the multidimensional measurement of situational interest in elementary physical education (PE) and illustrates the application and benefits of bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). I perform secondary analysis on a large, previously published data set used to provide validation support for the Situational Interest Scale for Elementary PE. Findings clearly demonstrate the advantages of capturing the multidimensional nature of situational interest using bifactor ESEM. Specifically, a more accurate measurement model of situational interest is reproduced using bifactor ESEM compared with other techniques such as first-order and second-order confirmatory factor analysis. There is empirical support for an overall general factor of situational interest when using the Situational Interest Scale for Elementary PE, however, examining the five dimensions of situational interest as unique factors after accounting for the general factor does not appear warranted.

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Ang Chen and Weimo Zhu

Background:

A physically active or inactive lifestyle begins with intuitive interest at a very young age. This study examined the impact of selected personal, school, and home variables on young children’s intuitive interests in physical and sedentary activities.

Methods:

National data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (US Department of Education) were examined using Cohen’s d, hierarchical log-linear analyses, and logistic regression.

Results:

Children’s interest in physical activity is accounted for fractionally by personal variables, but substantially by school and home variables including number of physical education classes per week, teacher experiences of teaching PE, and neighborhood safety.

Conclusion:

School and home environment variables have stronger impact than personal variables on children’s intuitive interest in physical activity. Future interventions should focus on strengthening school physical education and providing a safe home environment to help nurture young children’s intuitive interest in physical activity.

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Zan Gao, Ken R. Lodewyk and Tao Zhang

This study uncovers the predictive relationship of middle school students’ ability beliefs (self-efficacy and expectancy-related beliefs) and incentives (outcome expectancy, importance, interest, and usefulness) to intention, cardiovascular fitness, and teacher-rated effort in physical education. Participants (N = 252; 118 boys, 134 girls) completed questionnaires assessing their ability beliefs, incentives, and intention for future participation in physical education, and then had their cardiovascular fitness assessed with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. Students’ effort in class was rated by their respective physical education teachers. Correlation analysis yielded significantly positive relationships between ability beliefs and incentives. Regression results revealed that ability beliefs, importance, interest, and usefulness significantly predicted intention for future participation. Ability beliefs also emerged as significant predictors of PACER test scores whereas self-efficacy was the only predictor of teacher-rated effort. Implications for educational practice are discussed.