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Megan Q. Beard, Samantha A. Boland and Phillip A. Gribble

, transportable, and more economical. Although the HHD can be effective, the reliability of the device can be influenced by examiner experience, patient position, and the use of stability straps. Previous studies have determined isometric strength testing using a HHD can have high interexaminer reliability and

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Nicola Relph and Lee Herrington

Context: Knee joint-position sense (JPS) plays a critical role in controlled and stable joint movement. Poor ability to sense position of the knee can therefore increase risk of injury. There is no agreed consensus on JPS measurement techniques and a lack of reliability statistics on methods. Objective: To identify the most reliable knee JPS measurement technique using image capture. Design: Interexaminer, intraexaminer, and test-retest reliability of knee JPS measurements. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: 10 asymptomatic participants. Interventions: None. Main Outcome Measures: Relative and absolute error scores of knee JPS in 3 conditions (sitting, prone, active) through 3 ranges of movement (10-30°, 30-60°, 60-90°), into 2 directions (flexion and extension) using both legs (dominant and nondominant) collected during 15 trials and repeated 7 d after the first data collection. Results: Statistical analysis by intraclass correlations revealed excellent interexaminer reliability between researchers (.98) and intraexaminer reliability within 1 researcher (.96). Test-retest reliability was highest in the sitting condition from a starting angle of 0°, target angle through 60-90° of flexion, using the dominant leg and absolute-error-score variables (ICC = .92). However, it was noted smallest detectable differences were a high percentage of mean values for all measures. Conclusions: The most reliable JPS measurement for asymptomatic participants has been identified. Practitioners should use this protocol when collecting JPS data during prescreening sessions. However, generalizability of findings to a class/group of clients exhibiting knee pathologies should be done with caution.

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Elif Turgut, Irem Duzgun and Gul Baltaci

( 3 ): 151 – 158 . PubMed doi:10.1177/036354658000800302 7377445 10.1177/036354658000800302 14. Magee D . Orthopaedic Physical Assessment . Philadelphia, PA : W.B. Saunders Co ; 1997 . 15. Tzannes A , Paxinos A , Callanan M , Murrell GA . An assessment of the interexaminer

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Natalia Romero-Franco, Juan Antonio Montaño-Munuera, Juan Carlos Fernández-Domínguez and Pedro Jiménez-Reyes

.2307/2529310 843571 10.2307/2529310 27. Relph N , Herrington L . Interexaminer, intraexaminer and test-retest reliability of clinical knee joint-position-sense measurements using an image-capture technique . J Sport Rehabil . 2015 ;Technical Notes 12 : 2013134 . 28. Hamaoui A , Le Bozec S . Does

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Hans Kainz, Hoa X. Hoang, Chris Stockton, Roslyn R. Boyd, David G. Lloyd and Christopher P. Carty

cohort was assessed in the current study and this may explain the discrepancy between results. Indeed, intra- and interexaminer precision of pelvis marker placement has been shown to be between 12 mm and 25 mm, 30 which impacts on the accuracy and reliability of pelvis scaling and it is likely that

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Jana Slaght, Martin Sénéchal and Danielle R. Bouchard

fitness assessment and exercise prescription ( 6th ed. ). Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics . Hoyle , D.A. , Latour , M. , & Bohannon , R.W. ( 1991 ). Intraexaminer, interexaminer, and interdevice comparability of leg length measurements obtained with measuring tape and metrecom . The Journal of

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Nicola Relph and Katie Small

, Herrington L . Interexaminer, intraexaminer, and test–retest reliability of clinical knee joint-position-sense measurements using an image-capture technique . J Sport Rehabil . 2015 ; 24 ( 2 ). doi:10.1123/jsr.2013-0134. 25310683 10.1123/jsr.2013-0134 22. Gribble PA , Hertel J , Plisky P

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Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiangli Gu, Tao Zhang, Priscila Caçola and Jing Wang

were conducted and obtained by 2 experienced and trained staff. To reduce interexaminer variability, reduce measurement error, and ensure data quality, the specific training protocols were established including demonstration of the protocols, live practicing of the tests, and daily checking and

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Mohammadreza Pourahmadi, Hamid Hesarikia, Ali Ghanjal and Alireza Shamsoddini

, Skouen J . The inter-examiner reliability of a classification method for non-specific chronic low back pain patients with motor control impairment . Man Ther . 2006 ; 11 ( 1 ): 28 – 39 . doi:10.1016/j.math.2005.02.001 10.1016/j.math.2005.02.001 15936976

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Ross Armstrong

, Remvig L . Inter-examiner reproducibility of tests and criteria for generalized joint hypermobility and benign joint hypermobility syndrome . Rheumatology . 2007 ; 46 : 1835 – 1841 . PubMed ID: 18006569 doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kem290 18006569 26. Weir JP . Quantifying test-retest reliability