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Lisa M. Van Landuyt, Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Eric E. Hall and Steven J. Petruzzello

Traditional conceptions of the exercise–affect relationship postulate that moderate-intensity exercise leads to positive affective changes in all or most individuals, and it can, therefore, be prescribed for all individuals involved in exercise programs. This study investigated whether this assumption is true, not only at the level of group averages but also at the level of individuals. Affect was assessed before, during, and after a session of moderate-intensity cycle ergometry using a dimensional conceptualization of affect. Examination of individual responses revealed a diversity of patterns that was masked by aggregate-based analyses. Mean ratings of affective valence were shown to remain stable during exercise, but in actuality almost half of the individuals experienced progressive improvement, whereas the other half experienced progressive deterioration. The diversity of individual affective responses must be taken into account in formulating conceptual models of the exercise–affect relationship and deriving public health physical activity recommendations.

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Bryan Saunders, Craig Sale, Roger C. Harris and Caroline Sunderland


To determine whether gastrointestinal (GI) distress affects the ergogenicity of sodium bicarbonate and whether the degree of alkalemia or other metabolic responses is different between individuals who improve exercise capacity and those who do not.


Twenty-one men completed 2 cycling-capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output. Participants were supplemented with 0.3 g/kg body mass of either placebo (maltodextrin) or sodium bicarbonate (SB). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate were determined at baseline, preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 5 min postexercise.


SB supplementation did not significantly increase total work done (TWD; P = .16, 46.8 · 9.1 vs 45.6 · 8.4 kJ, d = 0.14), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 63% likelihood of a positive effect. When data were analyzed without 4 participants who experienced GI discomfort, TWD (P = .01) was significantly improved with SB. Immediately postexercise blood lactate was higher in SB for the individuals who improved but not for those who did not. There were also differences in the preexercise-to-postexercise change in blood pH, bicarbonate, and base excess between individuals who improved and those who did not.


SB improved high-intensity-cycling capacity but only with the exclusion of participants experiencing GI discomfort. Differences in blood responses suggest that SB may not be beneficial to all individuals. Magnitude-based inferences suggested that the exercise effects are unlikely to be negative; therefore, individuals should determine whether they respond well to SB supplementation before competition.

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Mary O. Whipple, Erica N. Schorr, Kristine M.C. Talley, Ruth Lindquist, Ulf G. Bronas and Diane Treat-Jacobson

potential bias and complication introduced by inclusion of older adults with multiple chronic conditions that could be influence response to the intervention in unanticipated or negative ways. Studies in healthy individuals and young adults indicate substantial interindividual variability in physiological

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Marianne Jover, Mathilde Cellier and Celine Scola

able to talk, infants make use of their general motor activity to express themselves and become stakeholders in social interactions. Therefore, despite considerable interindividual variability, we expected the infants’ motor activity to follow their mothers’ behavior, decreasing when they sang and

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Anasthase Massamba, Stéphane P. Dufour, Fabrice Favret and Thomas J. Hureau

) while it is not for SSG, meaning that training intensity is more difficult to control. Therefore, it would be insightful to investigate both the intensity and the interindividual variability of the physiological response when comparing HIIT and SSG. Previous studies found that SSG HR responses were

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Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda, Jorge Cancino, Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Cristian Pérez-Luco, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Juan Del Coso and Hermann Zbinden-Foncea

sodium lost in one exercise session ( Turner & Avolio, 2016 ). The mechanisms behind the interindividual variability of sweat electrolyte loss and concentration are not completely understood. However, the sweat rate ( Buono et al., 2007 ), concentration of aldosterone ( Yoshida et al., 2006 ) and

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Harry E. Routledge, Jill J. Leckey, Matt J. Lee, Andrew Garnham, Stuart Graham, Darren Burgess, Louise M. Burke, Robert M. Erskine, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

necessary for this population. Further studies are now required to quantify the interindividual variability of glycogen use as well as examine any potential metabolic and ergogenic effects of CHO feedings during match play. References 1. Anderson L , Orme P , Di Michele R , et al . Quantification

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Rachel Massie, James Smallcombe and Keith Tolfrey

suggests that exercise-induced weight loss is complex with large interindividual variability after completing an exercise program ( 27 ). Further research focusing on compensatory changes related to free-living EE, resting metabolic rate, or lean mass, in addition to EI, has also been suggested ( 42

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Andreas Apostolidis, Vassilis Mougios, Ilias Smilios, Johanna Rodosthenous and Marios Hadjicharalambous

might be due to interindividual variability in biological responses to caffeine. 9 Indeed, there is evidence for performance improvement for some participants, whereas performance in others is not affected by caffeine. 3 Del Coso et al 10 suggested that participants should be categorized based on

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Daniel Martin, Craig Sale, Simon B. Cooper and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

proportion of sportswomen use progestin-only contraceptives with a perceived benefit being that they induce amenorrhea. There is a larger interindividual variability in response to HC use and the menstrual cycle that should be considered by athletes and practitioners. References 1. Cable NT , Elliott KJ