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Lisa M. Van Landuyt, Panteleimon Ekkekakis, Eric E. Hall, and Steven J. Petruzzello

Traditional conceptions of the exercise–affect relationship postulate that moderate-intensity exercise leads to positive affective changes in all or most individuals, and it can, therefore, be prescribed for all individuals involved in exercise programs. This study investigated whether this assumption is true, not only at the level of group averages but also at the level of individuals. Affect was assessed before, during, and after a session of moderate-intensity cycle ergometry using a dimensional conceptualization of affect. Examination of individual responses revealed a diversity of patterns that was masked by aggregate-based analyses. Mean ratings of affective valence were shown to remain stable during exercise, but in actuality almost half of the individuals experienced progressive improvement, whereas the other half experienced progressive deterioration. The diversity of individual affective responses must be taken into account in formulating conceptual models of the exercise–affect relationship and deriving public health physical activity recommendations.

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Bryan Saunders, Craig Sale, Roger C. Harris, and Caroline Sunderland


To determine whether gastrointestinal (GI) distress affects the ergogenicity of sodium bicarbonate and whether the degree of alkalemia or other metabolic responses is different between individuals who improve exercise capacity and those who do not.


Twenty-one men completed 2 cycling-capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output. Participants were supplemented with 0.3 g/kg body mass of either placebo (maltodextrin) or sodium bicarbonate (SB). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate were determined at baseline, preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 5 min postexercise.


SB supplementation did not significantly increase total work done (TWD; P = .16, 46.8 · 9.1 vs 45.6 · 8.4 kJ, d = 0.14), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 63% likelihood of a positive effect. When data were analyzed without 4 participants who experienced GI discomfort, TWD (P = .01) was significantly improved with SB. Immediately postexercise blood lactate was higher in SB for the individuals who improved but not for those who did not. There were also differences in the preexercise-to-postexercise change in blood pH, bicarbonate, and base excess between individuals who improved and those who did not.


SB improved high-intensity-cycling capacity but only with the exclusion of participants experiencing GI discomfort. Differences in blood responses suggest that SB may not be beneficial to all individuals. Magnitude-based inferences suggested that the exercise effects are unlikely to be negative; therefore, individuals should determine whether they respond well to SB supplementation before competition.

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Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, Gonçalo Rendeiro-Pinho, Pedro V. Mil-Homens, and Fernando Pareja-Blanco

the set and the percentage of  repetitions performed with regard to MNR that could be completed up to concentric muscle failure (%Rep) for relative loads between 50% and 85% 1RM in the Smith machine bench press (BP) and squat exercises. 7 , 12 There was also a low interindividual variability (CV = 2

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Mary O. Whipple, Erica N. Schorr, Kristine M.C. Talley, Ruth Lindquist, Ulf G. Bronas, and Diane Treat-Jacobson

potential bias and complication introduced by inclusion of older adults with multiple chronic conditions that could be influence response to the intervention in unanticipated or negative ways. Studies in healthy individuals and young adults indicate substantial interindividual variability in physiological

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Marianne Jover, Mathilde Cellier, and Celine Scola

able to talk, infants make use of their general motor activity to express themselves and become stakeholders in social interactions. Therefore, despite considerable interindividual variability, we expected the infants’ motor activity to follow their mothers’ behavior, decreasing when they sang and

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Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda, Jorge Cancino, Rodrigo Fernández-Verdejo, Cristian Pérez-Luco, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Juan Del Coso, and Hermann Zbinden-Foncea

sodium lost in one exercise session ( Turner & Avolio, 2016 ). The mechanisms behind the interindividual variability of sweat electrolyte loss and concentration are not completely understood. However, the sweat rate ( Buono et al., 2007 ), concentration of aldosterone ( Yoshida et al., 2006 ) and

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Anasthase Massamba, Stéphane P. Dufour, Fabrice Favret, and Thomas J. Hureau

) while it is not for SSG, meaning that training intensity is more difficult to control. Therefore, it would be insightful to investigate both the intensity and the interindividual variability of the physiological response when comparing HIIT and SSG. Previous studies found that SSG HR responses were

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Harry E. Routledge, Jill J. Leckey, Matt J. Lee, Andrew Garnham, Stuart Graham, Darren Burgess, Louise M. Burke, Robert M. Erskine, Graeme L. Close, and James P. Morton

necessary for this population. Further studies are now required to quantify the interindividual variability of glycogen use as well as examine any potential metabolic and ergogenic effects of CHO feedings during match play. References 1. Anderson L , Orme P , Di Michele R , et al . Quantification

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Gabriel Perri Esteves, Paul Swinton, Craig Sale, Ruth M. James, Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Hamilton Roschel, Bruno Gualano, Bryan Saunders, and Eimear Dolan

supplementation has also highlighted large within-study interindividual variability. In addition to reporting that BA moderately improved CCT 110% performance for the group, Saunders et al. ( 2017 ) also identified a wide range of individual changes, with some participants demonstrating large performance

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Gabriele Gallo, Elisabetta Geda, Roberto Codella, Emanuela Faelli, Marco Panascì, Luis Eduardo Ranieri, Luca Pollastri, Stefania Brighenti, Luigi Molino, Ugo Riba, Livio Luzi, Piero Ruggeri, and Luca Filipas

Interindividual Variability It has been previously shown that participant’s baseline level of fitness could have a significant impact on both the physical and cognitive effects of tDCS, 37 with individuals with superior baseline levels improving less, not improving, or worsening their performance with respect to