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Erin L. McCleave, Katie M. Slattery, Rob Duffield, Stephen Crowcroft, Chris R. Abbiss, Lee K. Wallace and Aaron J. Coutts

conditions. 6 Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) can also improve physiological capacity, by increasing oxygen carrying capacity, 9 and enhancing muscle blood perfusion and fast-twitch fiber utilization. 10 However, the effect of IHT on endurance performance in temperate conditions at sea

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Mathew W.H. Inness, François Billaut and Robert J. Aughey

Purpose:

To determine the time course for physical-capacity adaptations to intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) in team-sport athletes and the time course for benefits remaining after IHT.

Methods:

A pre–post parallel-groups design was employed, with 21 Australian footballers assigned to IHT (n = 10) or control (CON; n = 11) matched for training load. IHT performed eleven 40-min bike sessions at 2500-m altitude over 4 wk. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) was performed before; after 3, 6, and 11 IHT sessions; and 30 and 44 d after IHT. Repeated time trials (2- and 1-km TTs, with 5 min rest) were performed before, after, and 3 wk after IHT. Hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured in IHT before and after 3, 6, 9, and 11 sessions.

Results:

Baseline Yo-Yo IR2 was similar between groups. After 6 sessions, the change in Yo-Yo IR2 in IHT was very likely higher than CON (27% greater change, effect size 0.77, 90% confidence limits 0.20;1.33) and likely higher 1 d after IHT (23%, 0.68, 0.05;1.30). The IHT group’s change remained likely higher than CON 30 d after IHT (24%, 0.72, 0.12;1.33) but was not meaningfully different 44 d after (12%, 0.36, –0.24;0.97). The change in 2-km TT performance between groups was not different throughout. For 1-km TT, CON improved more after IHT, but IHT maintained performance better after 3 wk. Hbmass was higher after IHT (2.7%, 0.40, –0.40;1.19).

Conclusion:

Short-duration IHT increased Yo-Yo IR2 compared with training-load-matched controls in 2 wk. An additional 2 wk of IHT provided no further benefit. These changes remained until at least 30 d posttraining. IHT also protected improvement in 1-km TT.

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Randall L. Wilber

“Live high-train low” (LH+TL) altitude training allows athletes to “live high” for the purpose of facilitating altitude acclimatization, as characterized by a significant and sustained increase in endogenous erythropoietin and subsequent increase in erythrocyte volume, while simultaneously enabling them to “train low” for the purpose of replicating sea-level training intensity and oxygen flux, thereby inducing beneficial metabolic and neuromuscular adaptations. In addition to natural/terrestrial LH+TL, several simulated LH+TL devices have been developed including nitrogen apartments, hypoxic tents, and hypoxicator devices. One of the key issues regarding the practical application of LH+TL is what the optimal hypoxic dose is that is needed to facilitate altitude acclimatization and produce the expected beneficial physiological responses and sea-level performance effects. The purpose of this review is to examine this issue from a research-based and applied perspective by addressing the following questions: What is the optimal altitude at which to live, how many days are required at altitude, and how many hours per day are required? It appears that for athletes to derive the hematological benefits of LH+TL while using natural/terrestrial altitude, they need to live at an elevation of 2000 to 2500 m for >4 wk for >22 h/d. For athletes using LH+TL in a simulated altitude environment, fewer hours (12-16 h) of hypoxic exposure might be necessary, but a higher elevation (2500 to 3000 m) is required to achieve similar physiological responses.

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Paul S.R. Goods, Brian T. Dawson, Grant J. Landers, Christopher J. Gore and Peter Peeling

Purpose:

This study aimed to assess the impact of 3 heights of simulated altitude exposure on repeat-sprint performance in teamsport athletes.

Methods:

Ten trained male team-sport athletes completed 3 sets of repeated sprints (9 × 4 s) on a nonmotorized treadmill at sea level and at simulated altitudes of 2000, 3000, and 4000 m. Participants completed 4 trials in a random order over 4 wk, with mean power output (MPO), peak power output (PPO), blood lactate concentration (Bla), and oxygen saturation (SaO2) recorded after each set.

Results:

Each increase in simulated altitude corresponded with a significant decrease in SaO2. Total work across all sets was highest at sea level and correspondingly lower at each successive altitude (P < .05; sea level < 2000 m < 3000 m < 4000 m). In the first set, MPO was reduced only at 4000 m, but for subsequent sets, decreases in MPO were observed at all altitudes (P < .05; 2000 m < 3000 m < 4000 m). PPO was maintained in all sets except for set 3 at 4000 m (P < .05; vs sea level and 2000 m). BLa levels were highest at 4000 m and significantly greater (P < .05) than at sea level after all sets.

Conclusions:

These results suggest that “higher may not be better,” as a simulated altitude of 4000 m may potentially blunt absolute training quality. Therefore, it is recommended that a moderate simulated altitude (2000–3000 m) be employed when implementing intermittent hypoxic repeat-sprint training for team-sport athletes.

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-Sport Athletes’ Improvement of Performance on the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2, but Not of Time-Trial Performance, With Intermittent Hypoxic Training Mathew W.H. Inness * François Billaut * Robert J. Aughey * 1 2016 11 1 15 21 10.1123/ijspp.2014-0246 Contribution of Leg-Muscle Forces to Paddle

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Adam Beard, John Ashby, Ryan Chambers, Franck Brocherie and Grégoire P. Millet

.00024 28223938 11. Inness MW , Billaut F , Aughey RJ . Team-sport athletes’ improvement of performance on the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2, but not of time-trial performance, with intermittent hypoxic training . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2016 ; 11 ( 1 ): 15 – 21 . doi:10.1123/ijspp

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Manuela González, Zigor Montalvo and Grégoire P. Millet

: 1651 – 1660 . doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0685-3 28194720 10.1007/s40279-017-0685-3 4. Faiss R , Girard O , Millet GP . Advancing hypoxic training in team sports: from intermittent hypoxic training to repeated sprint training in hypoxia . Br J Sports Med . 2013 ; 47 : i45 – i50 . doi:10

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Tomás Chacón Torrealba, Jaime Aranda Araya, Nicolas Benoit and Louise Deldicque

performance: a kinetic and kinematic analysis . J Sports Sci . 2014 ; 32 ( 19 ): 1805 – 1812 . PubMed ID: 24875041 doi:10.1080/02640414.2014.924055 24875041 10.1080/02640414.2014.924055 26. Hamlin MJ , Marshall HC , Hellemans J , Ainslie PN , Anglem N . Effect of intermittent hypoxic training