intermittent sprint performance in elite female water polo players. Overall, no difference in dynamic apnea performance could be detected between BR and PLA. However, a significant interaction with test order showed that a performance benefit was attained when BR was ingested during Period 2. We specifically
Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk
Neil S. Maxwell, Richard W.A. Mackenzie and David Bishop
To examine the effect of hypohydration on physiological strain and intermittent sprint exercise performance in the heat (35.5 ± 0.6°C, 48.7 ± 3.4% relative humidity).
Eight unacclimatized males (age 23.4 ± 6.2 y, height 1.78 ± 0.04 m, mass 76.8 ± 7.7 kg) undertook three trials, each over two days. On day 1, subjects performed 90 min of exercise/heat-induced dehydration on a cycle ergometer, before following one of three rehydration strategies. On day 2, subjects completed a 36-min cycling intermittent sprint test (IST) with a -0.62 ± 0.74% (euhydrated, EUH), -1.81 (0.99)% (hypohydrated1, HYPO1), or -3.88 ± 0.89% (hypohydrated2, HYPO2) body mass defcit.
No difference was observed in average total work (EUH, 3790 ± 556 kJ; HYPO1, 3785 ± 628 kJ; HYPO2, 3647 ± 339 kJ, P = 0.418), or average peak power (EUH, 1315 ± 129 W; HYPO1, 1304 ± 175 W; HYPO2, 1282 ± 128 W, P = 0.356) between conditions on day 2. Total work and peak power output in the sprint immediately following an intense repeated sprint bout during the IST were lower in the HYPO2 condition. Physiological strain index was greater in the HYPO2 vs. the EUH condition, but without changes in metabolic markers.
A greater physiological strain was observed with the greatest degree of hypohydration; however, sprint performance only diminished in the most hypohydrated state near the end of the IST, following an intense bout of repeating sprinting.
Jonathan D.C. Leeder, Ken A. van Someren, David Gaze, Andrew Jewell, Nawed I.K. Deshmukh, Iltaf Shah, James Barker and Glyn Howatson
This investigation aimed to ascertain a detailed physiological profile of recovery from intermittentsprint exercise of athletes familiar with the exercise and to investigate if athletes receive a protective effect on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), inflammation, and oxidative stress after a repeated exposure to an identical bout of intermittent-sprint exercise.
Eight well-trained male team-sport athletes of National League or English University Premier Division standard (mean ± SD age 23 ± 3 y, VO2max 54.8 ± 4.6 mL · kg−1 · min−1) completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) on 2 occasions, separated by 14 d. Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), countermovement jump (CMJ), creatine kinase (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), F2-isoprostanes, and muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured before and up to 72 h after the initial and repeated LISTs.
MIVC, CMJ, CK, IL-6, and DOMS all showed main effects for time (P < .05) after the LIST, indicating that EIMD was present. DOMS peaked at 24 h after LIST 1 (110 ± 53 mm), was attenuated after LIST 2 (56 ± 39 mm), and was the only dependent variable to demonstrate a reduction in the second bout (P = .008). All other markers indicated that EIMD did not differ between bouts.
Well-trained games players experienced EIMD after exposure to both exercise tests, despite being accustomed to the exercise type. This suggests that well-trained athletes receive a very limited protective effect from the first bout.
Mark Hayes, Paul C. Castle, Emma Z. Ross and Neil S. Maxwell
To examine the effect of a hot humid (HH) compared with a hot dry (HD) environment, matched for heat stress, on intermittent-sprint performance. In comparison with HD, HH environments compromise evaporative heat loss and decrease exercise tolerance. It was hypothesized that HH would produce greater physiological strain and reduce intermittent-sprint exercise performance compared with HD.
Eleven male team-sport players completed the cycling intermittent-sprint protocol (CISP) in 3 conditions, temperate (TEMP; 21.2°C ± 1.3°C, 48.6% ± 8.4% relative humidity [rh]), HH (33.7°C ± 0.5°C, 78.2% ± 2.3% rh), and HD (40.2°C ± 0.2°C, 33.1% ± 4.9% rh), with both heat conditions matched for heat stress.
All participants completed the CISP in TEMP, but 3 failed to completed the full protocol of 20 sprints in HH and HD. Peak power output declined in all conditions (P < .05) but was not different between any condition (sprints 1–14 [N = 11]: HH 1073 ± 150 W, HD 1104 ± 127 W, TEMP, 1074 ± 134; sprints 15–20 [N = 8]: HH 954 ± 114 W, HD 997 ± 115 W, TEMP 993 ± 94; P > .05). Physiological strain was not significantly different in HH compared with HD, but HH was higher than TEMP (P < .05).
Intermittent-sprint exercise performance of 40 min duration is impaired, but it is not different in HH and HD environments matched for heat stress despite evidence of a trend toward greater physiological strain in an HH environment.
Rob Duffield, Monique King and Melissa Skein
This study investigated the effects of hot conditions on the acute recovery of voluntary and evoked muscle performance and physiological responses following intermittent exercise.
Seven youth male and six female team-sport athletes performed two sessions separated by 7 d, involving a 30-min exercise protocol and 60-min passive recovery in either 22°C or 33°C and 40% relative humidity. The exercise protocol involved a 20-s maximal sprint every 5 min, separated by constant-intensity exercise at 100 W on a cycle ergometer. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and a resting evoked twitch (Pf) of the right knee extensors were assessed before and immediately following exercise and again 15, 30, and 60 min post exercise, and capillary blood was obtained at the same time points to measure lactate, pH, and HCO3. During and following exercise, core temperature, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also measured.
No differences (P = 0.73 to 0.95) in peak power during repeated sprints were present between conditions. Post exercise MVC was reduced (P < .05) in both conditions and a moderate effect size (d = 0.60) indicated a slower percentage MVC recovered by 60 min in the heat (83 ± 10 vs 74 ± 11% recovered). Both heart rate and core temperature were significantly higher (P < .05) during recovery in the heat. Capillary blood values did not differ between conditions at any time point, whereas sessional RPE was higher 60 min post exercise in the heat.
The current data suggests that passive recovery in warm temperatures not only delays cardiovascular and thermal recovery, but may also slow the recovery of MVC and RPE.
Alistair P. Murphy, Rob Duffield, Aaron Kellett and Machar Reid
Given the travel that punctuates junior tennis development, an understanding of the changes in fitness owing to touring and the association between training loads (TLs) and fitness on return is vital. The authors investigated physical-capacity changes from pretour to posttour, determining if those changes were related to the TL of athletes on tour.
Thirty junior athletes completed fitness testing before and after 4-wk tours. Testing included double-leg countermovement jump (CMJ), dominant single-leg and nondominant single-leg CMJ, speed (5, 10, 20 m), modified 5-0-5 agility (left and right), 10 × 20-m repeated-sprint ability (RSA), and multistage fitness tests. Repeated-measures ANOVAs determined physical-capacity change, with effect-size analysis establishing the magnitude of change. To avoid regression toward the mean, a 1/3-split technique was implemented for comparative analysis (high to low TLs).
Moderate effects (d = 0.50–0.70) for reductions of up to 3.6% in 5-, 10-, and 20-m speeds were observed. However, all remaining changes were only of trivial to small magnitude (d < 0.40). Closer analysis of the interaction between TL and physical capacities (1/3-split) revealed that subjects who completed the greatest amount of total and tennis TL returned with a greater decline in speed and aerobic capacities (d > 0.80). Furthermore, it was observed that match load dictates on- and off-court TL, with an increase in matches won understandably stunting exposure to off-court TL.
Specific training should be prescribed on tour to maintain speed characteristics over a 4-wk international tour. On-tour training schedules should be carefully monitored to maximize specific TL exposure after losses on tour.
Naoya Takei, Katsuyuki Kakinoki, Olivier Girard and Hideo Hatta
Background: Training in hypoxia versus normoxia often induces larger physiological adaptations, while this does not always translate into additional performance benefits. A possible explanation is a reduced oxygen flux, negatively affecting training intensity and/or volume (decreasing training stimulus). Repeated Wingates (RW) in normoxia is an efficient training strategy for improving both physiological parameters and exercise capacity. However, it remains unclear whether the addition of hypoxia has a detrimental effect on RW performance. Purpose: To test the hypothesis that acute moderate hypoxia exposure has no detrimental effect on RW, while both metabolic and perceptual responses would be slightly higher. Methods: On separate days, 7 male university sprinters performed 3 × 30-s Wingate efforts with 4.5-min passive recovery in either hypoxia (FiO2: 0.145) or normoxia (FiO2: 0.209). Arterial oxygen saturation was assessed before the first Wingate effort, while blood lactate concentration and ratings of perceived exertion were measured after each bout. Results: Mean (P = .92) and peak (P = .63) power outputs, total work (P = .98), and the percentage decrement score (P = .25) were similar between conditions. Arterial oxygen saturation was significantly lower in hypoxia versus normoxia (92.0% [2.8%] vs 98.1% [0.4%], P < .01), whereas blood lactate concentration (P = .78) and ratings of perceived exertion (P = .51) did not differ between conditions. Conclusion: In sprinters, acute exposure to moderate hypoxia had no detrimental effect on RW performance and associated metabolic and perceptual responses.
Peter M. Fowler, Wade Knez, Heidi R. Thornton, Charli Sargent, Amy E. Mendham, Stephen Crowcroft, Joanna Miller, Shona Halson and Rob Duffield
performance following long-haul travel. 1 , 2 Therefore, the greater sleep duration and reduced perceived fatigue evident in the intervention group could also explain the noted improvements in lower body power, despite no effect on intermittent-sprint capacity. Previous evidence suggests that individuals are
Martin Aedma, Saima Timpmann and Vahur Ööpik
Peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) attained in upper body sprint performance test are considered important factors for competitive success in wrestling. This study aimed to determine whether acute caffeine ingestion would better maintain PP and MP across a simulated competition day in wrestling.
In a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover study, 14 trained wrestlers ingested either placebo or 5 mg/kg caffeine and completed four 6-min upper body intermittent sprint performance tests with 30-min recovery periods between consecutive tests. PP and MP were recorded during and blood lactate concentration was measured before and after each test. Ratings of perceived fatigue (RPF) and exertion (RPE) were recorded before and after each test, respectively. Heart rate (HR) was monitored across the whole testing period.
Mean power decreased across four tests in both trials (p < .05), but the reduction in PP (from 277.2 ± 34.6 W to 257.3 ± 45.1 W; p < .05) only occurred in caffeine trial. Both pretest blood lactate concentration and HR were higher in caffeine than in placebo trial (p < .05) in the third and fourth tests. No between-trial differences occurred in RPF or RPE.
Under simulated competition day conditions mimicking four consecutive wrestling matches, acute caffeine ingestion has a partially detrimental effect on upper body intermittent sprint performance in trained wrestlers. Elevated HR and blood lactate levels observed between tests after caffeine ingestion suggest that caffeine may impair recovery between consecutive maximal efforts.
Xiaocai Shi, Mary K. Horn, Kris L. Osterberg, John R. Stofan,, Jeffrey J. Zachwieja, Craig A. Horswill, Dennis H. Passe and Robert Murray
This study investigated whether different beverage carbohydrate concentration and osmolality would provoke gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort during intermittent, high-intensity exercise. Thirty-six adult and adolescent athletes were tested on separate days in a double-blind, randomized trial of 6% and 8% carbohydrate-electrolytes (CHO-E) beverages during four 12-min quarters (Q) of circuit training that included intermittent sprints, lateral hops, shuttle runs, and vertical jumps. GI discomfort and fatigue surveys were completed before the first Q and immediately after each Q. All ratings of GI discomfort were modest throughout the study. The cumulative index for GI discomfort, however, was greater for the 8% CHO-E beverage than for the 6% CHO-E beverage at Q3 and Q4 (P < 0.05). Averaging across all 4 quarters, the 8% CHO-E treatment produced significantly higher mean ratings of stomach upset and side ache. In conclusion, higher CHO concentration and osmolality in an ingested beverage provokes stomach upset and side ache.