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Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira, and Camila Torriani-Pasin

Abbreviation: ICF, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Five selected studies were categorized as aerobic exercise; among these, the studies classified as moderate were those with the best quality of evidence. The study populations were heterogeneous in terms of the level of

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Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns, and Fergal Jones

the International Paralympic Committee model of sports classification and that of the World Health Organization, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health ( WHO-ICF, 2002 ). The WHO-ICF is a multipurpose classification system that provides a common language and conceptual

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Juliana S. Oliveira, Leanne Hassett, Catherine Sherrington, Elisabeth Ramsay, Catherine Kirkham, Shona Manning, and Anne Tiedemann

into components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): body functions, structures, activities, and participation. The ICF ( World Health Organization, 2001 ) is a biopsychosocial framework that incorporates interaction between the health condition, body

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Brett D. Tarca, Thomas P. Wycherley, Paul Bennett, Anthony Meade, and Katia E. Ferrar

) were included. Modifiable physical factors (predictor variables) were defined as being potentially modifiable via an exercise program and would largely fall into the body function and structure impairment category of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. 12 As there

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Yeshayahu Hutzler

This article proposes a theory- and practice-based model for adapting physical activities. The ecological frame of reference includes Dynamic and Action System Theory, World Health Organization International Classification of Function and Disability, and Adaptation Theory. A systematic model is presented addressing (a) the task objective, (b) task criteria, (c) limitation and enablement criteria, (d) performance errors, and (e) adaptation suggestions. Four individual case examples are described, referring to the conceptual model and depicting its use in various settings of physical activity, including physical education, rehabilitation, competition, and recreation.

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Wendy M. Holmes and Madeleine E. Hackney

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of 16 individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) partaking in an adapted tango class and the perceived impact on participation and quality of life (QOL). The Ecology of Human Performance and the International Classification of Function were the theoretical frameworks for the study. Data collection involved focus groups conducted during the intervention and at a follow-up six months later. Data analysis followed inductive thematic analysis techniques. The themes addressed living with PD, the class structure and experiences, the participants’ expectations for the class, and the multiple effects experienced by participants at both time periods. The results suggest that adapted tango, when offered in a structured environment with skilled instruction, may improve skills for participation in daily activities and contribute to increased QOL for persons with PD.

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Cecilia Winberg, Gunilla Carlsson, Christina Brogårdh, and Jan Lexell

Maintaining regular physical activity (PA) can be challenging for persons with late effects of polio. This qualitative study of ambulatory persons with late effects of polio explored their perceptions of PA, as well as facilitators of and barriers to PA. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 persons and analyzed with content analysis using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. The participants described positive perceptions of PA and its health benefits. PA was used to prevent further decline in functioning, and the type and frequency of activities had changed over time. Past experiences and personal characteristics impacted PA. Support from close relatives, knowledgeable health care professionals, mobility devices, and accessible environments facilitated PA, whereas impairments, inaccessible environments, and cold weather were the main barriers. To perform PA regularly, persons with late effects of polio may benefit from individualized advice based on their disability and personal and environmental factors.

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Sean M. Tweedy

Development of a unified classification system to replace four of the systems currently used in disability athletics (i.e., track and field) has been widely advocated. The definition and purpose of classification, underpinned by taxonomic principles and collectively endorsed by relevant disability sport organizations, have not been developed but are required for successful implementation of a unified system. It is posited that the International classification of functioning, disability, and health (ICF), published by the World Health Organization (2001), and current disability athletics systems are, fundamentally, classifications of the functioning and disability associated with health conditions and are highly interrelated. A rationale for basing a unified disability athletics system on ICF is established. Following taxonomic analysis of the current systems, the definition and purpose of a unified disability athletics classification are proposed and discussed. The proposed taxonomic framework and definitions have implications for other disability sport classification systems.

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Enrique V. Smith-Forbes, Stephanie D. Moore-Reed, Philip M. Westgate, W. Ben Kibler, and Tim L. Uhl

Context:

Recent establishment of G-codes by the US government requires therapists to report function limitations at initial evaluation. Limited information exists specific to the most common limitations in patients with shoulder pain.

Objective:

To describe the most commonly expressed shoulder limitations with activities and their severity/level of impairment from a patient’s perspective on the initial evaluation.

Design:

Descriptive.

Setting:

Patients reporting pain with overhead activity and seeking medical attention from one orthopedic surgeon were recruited as part of a cohort study.

Patients:

176 with shoulder superior labral tear from anterior to posterior (SLAP), subacromial impingement, combined SLAP and rotator cuff, and nonspecific (female = 53, age = 41 ± 13 y; male = 123, age = 41 ± 12 y).

Interventions:

Data were obtained on the initial visit from the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) questionnaire. Three researchers extracted meaningful concepts from the PSFS and linked them to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) categories according to established ICF linking rules.

Results:

176 participants yielded 765 meaningful concepts that were linked to the ICF with a 66% agreement between researchers before consensus. There were no differences between diagnoses. Of all patients, 88% reported functional limitations coded into meaningful concepts as represented by 10 ICF codes; 634 (83%) meaningful concepts were linked to the activities and participation domain while 129 (17%) were linked to the body function domain. Only 2 reported functional limitations that were considered nondefinable (nd). The overall average initial impairment score on the PSFS = 4 ± 2.5 out of 10 points.

Conclusion:

Meaningful concepts from the activities and participation domain were most commonly identified as functional limitations and were more prevalent than limitations from the body function domain. This information helps identify some of the most common limitations in patients with shoulder pain that therapists can use to efficiently document patient functional impairment.

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Kwok Ng

classifications related to adapted physical activity (APA). The World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) has been described as the common language for functioning and disabilities, and it fits into the family of international classifications. In short