Reebok officially entered the bike business after 15 years of deliberation and strategic re-tooling. This case presents a situation that considers how the process of internationalization may be impacted by various factors both internal and external to the firm. The analysis examines multiple marketing elements, including brand position, product development, distribution channel, pricing, promotion, and operating model. The focus of decision making in the case centers on the use of licensing and determining possible alliance partner structures as possible solutions to enable Reebok to enter the global bike business successfully. Specific internationalization elements explored include mode of entry, foreign market selection, cultural influences, supply chain, operating model, and licensing strategic alliance partner strategy. This case provides an ideal opportunity to explore and analyze why and how a sport enterprise might want to internationalize its business and the potential role sport licensing might play in the process.
Internationalization is a very relevant topic on university campuses and most universities include a commitment to it in their mission statement or strategic plans. Over the years, universities have realized the importance of providing students with an international perspective that will prepare them to succeed in an increasingly globalized world. The globalization of the sport industry makes our field an ideal medium for addressing the concept of internationalization. As leaders in the field of sport management, we must ensure that we teach, research, and advocate from an international perspective. This paper discusses how we as sport management academicians and students might prepare ourselves to become global citizens by internationalizing ourselves through our teaching, research, and service. A commentary on the status of internationalization in our field as well as suggestions for change is provided.
Karen Danylchuk, Robert Baker, Brenda Pitts and James Zhang
This study examined the perspectives of sport management academicians regarding their experiences supervising international graduate students. Fifteen experts were interviewed and provided their perspectives on practices used in international student involvement—specifically, student identification, recruitment, acceptance, orientation, progress, and retention, and the inherent challenges and benefits. The primary challenges cited by the majority of participants were language and cultural differences in learning; however, all participants concurred that the benefits of supervising international students far outweighed the challenges. These benefits included, but were not limited to, bringing international and global perspectives into the learning environment, which was positive for both students and professors. Findings from this study may provide program administration with insights on key factors affecting the quality of delivery of sport management education to international students. Consequently, high-quality programs can be developed to meet the needs of students from diverse cultural and educational backgrounds.
Adrien Bouchet, Thomas W. Doellman, Michael Troilo and Brian R. Walkup
The effect of sponsorship on the stock market returns of the sponsoring companies has been previously studied, but the internationalizing aspect of sponsorship has been overlooked. We examine returns to shareholders for firms sponsoring international football matches using an event study analysis. We find that there are cumulative abnormal returns to stockholders of sponsoring firms of international matches 10 days after the match and 20 days after the match. This finding is robust across several different event-study methods. We also find this general pattern across different professional football leagues, as well as a positive effect on returns by sponsoring high-profile football clubs. We theorize that the elapsed time until the effect on the stock price is the result of building brand awareness before a shift in the price becomes evident. These findings add nuance to the literature on sponsorship and event studies, which is almost exclusively domestic in character.
This research note argues that while golf is perhaps the most socially pervasive of games on a global scale, its social contours have been ignored by academic analysts. The paper isolates three themes as being likely avenues for further investigation: environmental issues, the internationalization of golf and its economy, and social access to participation. By virtue of its heavy demands on natural resources of land and water, golf is rapidly becoming an environmental issue. International economic patterns are altering traditional golf participation patterns, course ownership, and equipment production. Then, the predicted 1990s golf boom may occur among social groups previously untouched by the game, again with implications for its social contexting. In each of these three themes there are clear overlaps and social interlocking that render golf an excellent research site for many of the issues in sport sociology.
Tan Zhang and Michael L. Silk
At present, and as China negotiates the instantiation of consumer capitalism, her urban spaces have experienced agonizing growth affecting housing, the internationalization of cities, interactions between government and developers, the development of rural land, migrant flows, and social stratification within the city. Focusing on Beijing, we locate the efforts to host major sporting events—especially the 1990 Asian Games and the 2008 Olympic Games—within the dynamics of the spatial reconfigurations in Beijing, a rapid reordering based on “capital space” (Harvey, 2001), gentrification, and the lifestyle practices of a burgeoning middle and upper class of Beijingers. In so doing, we offer a multidimensional account of the complex manner in which power, mobility, and transformation within a modernizing Beijing intersects with the discursive constitution of bodies, concluding with regard to new forms of social cleavages and inequalities that derive from embracing, however selectively, the logistics of the market in the framework set by the Chinese nation-state.
Callum Gilmour and David Rowe
Professional sport has been radically altered by global capitalism, expanding from its once highly localized origins into an increasingly internationalized, mediatized, and commoditized cultural form. Like other commodities, sport has branched out from saturated domestic markets in the West. The rapid development of Asian economies has witnessed a wave of economic and cultural modernization, and the subsequent emergence of middle-class consumption has seen internationally recognizable commodity signs like the English Premier League (EPL) desired for their symbolic link to global cosmopolitanism. This paper addresses the Malaysian context, where the nation-building process has been problematized by the complex racial, cultural and religious make-up of its population. It analyses the obstructive tension between local sporting developmental agenda and the orchestrated intrusion of global (predominantly Western) sports commodities.
Taylor M. Henry
internationalize both their player pool and their marketing reaches, a new generation of international superstars have gained traction in the United States, but often occupy a location as the foreign “other.” Applications of Leonard’s theoretical claims about whiteness and racialization could be further applied to
service providers and industrial companies since the internationalization of their production is based not on physical capital but on human capital, international financial assets, and transactions in the global market. This proximity with multinationals was possible due to the commodification of sport
Jeffrey D. James
’s presentation on internationalizing ourselves ( Danylchuk, 2011 ); Dr. Mahony’s discussion on working together for Sport Management’s future ( Mahony, 2008 ); and Dr. Chalip’s talk on a distinctive Sport Management discipline ( Chalip, 2006 ). With ideas from the various lectures filling my thoughts, I returned