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Geoffrey Whitfield, Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel and Harold W. Kohl III


Emerging evidence suggests that combined physical activity (PA) and inactivity may be more important for chronic disease risk than PA alone. A highly active yet highly sedentary population is needed to study this interaction. The present purpose is to describe the sitting habits of a group of recreational runners and determine if sitting varies with reported training duration or anticipated running velocity.


Marathon and half-marathon participants completed the Multicontext Sitting Time Questionnaire and reported peak training duration, anticipated finishing time, and demographic information. Sitting time was described across 5 contexts for workdays and nonworkdays. Total sitting time was analyzed by tertiles of training duration and anticipated event running velocity.


218 participants took part in this study. Median reported training time was 6.5 hours per week. Median total sitting time was higher on workdays than nonworkdays (645 and 480 minutes, respectively, P < .0001). Total sitting time was not associated with training duration or anticipated event running velocity.


These results suggest that recreational distance runners are simultaneously highly sedentary and highly active, supporting independence of sedentary behaviors and moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA. This population may provide the characteristics needed to study the joint effects of active and sedentary behaviors on health outcomes.

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Monika Grygorowicz, Martyna Michałowska, Paulina Jurga, Tomasz Piontek, Honorata Jakubowska and Tomasz Kotwicki

many opportunities for conducting research, one has to remember that Internet survey research includes the potential for response rate bias and the lack of control over the research environment. 4 There is also a possibility for selection bias in this study, as not only Internet users or members of

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Frances Bevington, Katrina L. Piercy, Kate Olscamp, Sandra W. Hilfiker, Dena G. Fisher and Elizabeth Y. Barnett

-based prevention marketing: organizing a community for health behavior intervention . Health Promot Pract . 2007 ; 8 ( 2 ): 154 – 163 . PubMed ID: 16923844 doi:10.1177/1524839906290089 16923844 10.1177/1524839906290089 16. Pew Research Center . Collecting survey data . 2020 .

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Laura A. Dwyer, Minal Patel, Linda C. Nebeling and April Y. Oh

interactions in prior research, the moderation analyses were exploratory. Methods FLASHE Study FLASHE is a cross-sectional US panel study consisting of 2 internet surveys (a PA-focused survey and a diet-focused survey) administered to dyads of parents and their adolescent child between April and October 2014

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Yuko Hashimoto, Ko Matsudaira, Susumu S. Sawada, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawakami, Chihiro Kinugawa, Takashi Okamoto, Koji Tsukamoto, Motohiko Miyachi, Hisashi Naito and Steven N. Blair

– 438 . doi:10.1007/s00586-012-2439-0 10.1007/s00586-012-2439-0 22868456 4. Takura T , Ushida T , Kanchiku T , et al . The societal burden of chronic pain in Japan: an Internet survey . J Orthop Sci . 2015 ; 20 ( 4 ): 750 – 760 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s00776-015-0730-8 25963609 10.1007/s00776

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Ciarán P. Friel and Carol Ewing Garber

convenience sample of PAM users who responded to an Internet survey drawn from across the United States. The respondents were asked to complete an online survey comprised of 67 questions describing their sociodemographics, PA behavior, motivations to be physically active, and how/why they used their PAM. A

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Katrina L. Piercy, Frances Bevington, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Sandra Williams Hilfiker, Sean Arayasirikul and Elizabeth Y. Barnett

. Accessed May 20, 2019. 31. Pew Research Center . Collecting survey data . . Accessed May 20, 2019.

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Venurs H.Y. Loh, Jerome N. Rachele, Wendy J. Brown, Fatima Ghani and Gavin Turrell

longitudinal multilevel study of physical activity change in mid-aged adults . BMC Public Health . 2009 ; 9 : 76 . PubMed doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-76 19265552 10.1186/1471-2458-9-76 25. Dillman DA . Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method . Vol  2 . New York, NY : Wiley ; 2000 . 26

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Amy Baker, Mary A. Hums, Yoseph Mamo and Damon P.S. Andrew

.A. ( 2000 ). Mail and internet surveys ( 2nd ed. ). New York, NY : John Wiley & Sons, Inc . Eby , L.T. ( 1997 ). Alternative forms of mentoring in changing organizational environments: A conceptual extension of the mentoring literature . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51 , 125 – 144 . doi:10

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John Stoszkowski and Dave Collins

). Mail and internet surveys: The tailored design method . New York, NY : Wiley . Entwistle , N.J. , & Peterson , E.R. ( 2004 ). Conceptions of learning and knowledge in higher education: Relationships with study behaviour and influences of learning environments . International Journal of