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Edward M. Kian and Matthew H. Zimmerman

In this phenomenology, interviews were conducted with former newspaper reporters now working for prominent Internet sports sites. Krumboltz’s (2008) Planned Happenstance Learning Theory on career development was used as a guiding framework. Data were transcribed and coded by two researchers. Most of the journalists decided to be newspaper sports writers early in life and began garnering professional experiences in their teens or in college. None planned to work for Internet outlets. However, all foresaw the demise of newspapers and landed with Internet outlets through media connections initially formed through newspapers. All but one expressed high satisfaction in their current jobs, citing large travel budgets, freedom to choose writing assignments, national platforms, and no hard time deadlines for submitting stories. These reporters find the future of sports journalism unpredictable, but believe they will be ready. Lehman-Wilizig and Cohen-Avigdor’s media life-cycle model (2004) was used to understand results in a broader context.

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Mallory S. Kobak, Andrew Lepp, Michael J. Rebold, Hannah Faulkner, Shannon Martin, and Jacob E. Barkley

equipment and technology ( 5 , 7 , 12 – 14 , 18 , 23 , 34 , 35 , 37 , 43 ). In recent years, young children have become a growing part of the population who utilize mobile Internet-connected electronic devices (eg, cellular telephones, tablet computers) for purposes such as talking/texting, accessing

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Athina Liacos, Angela T. Burge, Narelle S. Cox, and Anne E. Holland

; Spruit et al., 2013 ). The Internet is increasingly used to promote physical activity for all individuals, particularly those with chronic diseases ( Tate, Lyons, & Valle, 2015 ). Web-based programs using evidence-based approaches can be effective in promoting change in physical activity behavior

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Brian Wilson and Lyndsay Hayhurst

This article reports findings from an interview-based study focused around the role of the Internet in the development and operations of four nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that use sport as part of their youth engagement efforts. Findings showed, on the one hand, how the emergence of certain NGOs would not have been possible if not for the Internet. On the other hand, it was clear that the Internet contributes to a form of “ironic activism,” meaning that the practices that underlie certain forms of Internet-enabled NGO activity also reproduce neoliberal, market-driven approaches to dealing with social problems. The article includes discussion about ways in which the use of communication technologies by “sport for development” NGOs is reflective of broader developments in and around the NGO community.

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Tyson M. Bain, Georita M. Frierson, Elaine Trudelle-Jackson, and James R. Morrow Jr.

Background:

Self-report measures have been validated and are widely used. Interest currently lies in the development of simple, valid methods that can be used in any location to determine level of PA in large populations/samples. The purpose of this report is to illustrate tracking of physical activity behaviors and musculoskeletal injury reports on a weekly basis via the Internet.

Methods:

The Women’s Injury Study (WIN) methodology includes use of BRFSS-related physical activity items that are completed online by more than 900 women weekly for an average of 3 years.

Results:

With more than 45,000 weekly physical activity and injury logs, the percentage of total logs submitted via online records is 91%. Self-reported pedometer steps are consistent with similar, smaller research samples.

Conclusions:

This report suggests that Internet tracking is a viable means of assessing nearly real-time physical activity, describes the process of developing and monitoring self-reported physical activity behaviors via the Internet, and provides recommendations for others considering such methods.

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Gengyu Han, Jingshu Zhang, Shang Ma, Ruoran Lu, Jiali Duan, Yi Song, and Patrick W.C. Lau

Internet usage has increased exponentially, with more than 4.3 billion users worldwide recorded in January 2019. 1 In China, the Internet is also becoming more and more accessible, especially for children. According to the 2019 National Internet Research Report on Children, there are 175 million

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Yann Abdourazakou, Xuefei (Nancy) Deng, and Gashaw Abeza

services, and relationship marketing ( Abeza, O’Reilly, Seguin, & Nzindukiyimana, 2017 ). Defined as a group of Internet-based platforms and applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0., social media platforms allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content

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Joachim Kimmerle, Kim-Kristin Gerbing, Ansgar Thiel, and Ulrike Cress

This research note provides an explorative analysis of sport-related knowledge exchange about Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) on the Internet. Data are taken from a qualitative content analysis of the largest German-speaking Internet sport portal. Knowledge exchange about CAM in these Internet fora is characterized by the following phenomena: Users expected CAM to improve their performance and discussed a great variety of treatments based on primarily anecdotal knowledge. In addition, two main types of users (helpers and help-seekers) dominated the exchanges. The main reasons for seeking alternative medical help on the Internet were cases of prolonged illness and dissatisfaction with biomedical care.

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Rebekah Steele, W. Kerry Mummery, and Trudy Dwyer

Background:

A growing number of the population are using the Internet for health information, such as physical activity (PA). The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of delivery modes for a behavior change program targeting PA.

Methods:

A randomized trial was conducted with 192 subjects randomly allocated to either a face-to-face, Internet-mediated, or Internet-only arm of a 12-wk intervention. Subjects included inactive adults with Internet access. The primary outcome variable was self-reported PA, assessed at four time points.

Results:

The results showed no group × time interaction for PA F(6, 567) = 1.64, p > 0.05, and no main effect for group F(2, 189) = 1.58, p > 0.05. However, a main effect for time F(3, 567) = 75.7, p < 0.01 was observed for each group. All groups were statistically equivalent immediately post-intervention (p < 0.05), but not at the follow-up time points (p > 0.05). The Internet-mediated and Internet-only groups showed similar increases in PA to the face-to-face group immediately post-intervention.

Conclusions:

This study provides evidence in support of the Internet in the delivery of PA interventions and highlights avenues for future research.

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Scott Owens, Laurel Lambert, Suzanne McDonough, Kenneth Green, and Mark Loftin

This pilot study examined the feasibility of an interactive obesity prevention program delivered to a class of fourth-grade students utilizing daily e-mail messages sent to the students’ home computers. The study involved a single intact class of 22 students, 17 (77%) of whom submitted parental permission documentation and received e-mail messages each school day over the course of one month. Concerns regarding Internet safety and children’s use of e-mail were addressed fairly easily. Cost/benefit issues for the school did not seem prohibitive. Providing e-mail access to students without a home computer was accomplished by loaning them personal digital assistant (PDA) devices. In larger interventions, loaning PDAs is probably not feasible economically, although cell phones may be an acceptable alternative. It was concluded that this type of interactive obesity prevention program is feasible from most perspectives. Data from a larger scale effectiveness study is still needed.