Purpose: To objectively capture and understand tactical considerations in a race, the authors explored whether race-to-race variation of an athlete and the variation of competitors within a race could provide insight into how and when athletes modify their pacing decisions in response to other competitors. Methods: Lap times of elite 500-, 1000-, and 1500-m short-track speed-skating competitions from 2011 to 2016 (N = 6965 races) were collected. Log-transformed lap and finishing times were analyzed with mixed linear models. To determine within-athlete race-to-race variability, athlete identity (between-athletes differences) and the residual (within-athlete race-to-race variation) were added as random effects. To determine race variability, race identity (between-races differences) and the residual (within-race variation) were added as random effects. Separate analyses were performed for each event. Results: Within-athlete race-to-race variability of the finishing times increased with prolonged distance of the event (500-m, CV = 1.6%; 1000-m, CV = 2.8%; 1500-m, CV = 4.1%), mainly due to higher within-athlete race-to-race variability in the initial phase of 1000-m (3.3–6.9%) and 1500-m competitions (8.7–12.2%). During these early stages, within-race variability is relatively low in 1000-m (1.1–1.4%) and 1500-m (1.3–2.8%) competitions. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated how analyses of athlete and race variability could provide insight into tactical pacing decisions in sports where finishing position is emphasized over finishing time. The high variability of short-track skaters is a result of the decision to alter initial pacing behavior based on the behavior of other competitors in their race, emphasizing the importance of athlete–environment interactions in the context of pacing.
Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga
Marco J. Konings, Olaf S. Noorbergen, David Parry, and Florentina J. Hettinga
To gain more insight in pacing behavior and tactical positioning in 1500-m short-track speed skating, a sport in which several athletes directly compete in the same race.
Lap times and intermediate rankings of elite 1500-m short-track-skating competitors were collected over the season 2012–13 (N = 510, 85 races). Two statistical approaches were used to assess pacing behavior and tactical positioning. First, lap times were analyzed using a MANOVA, and for each lap differences between sex, race type, final rankings, and stage of competition were determined. Second, Kendall tau b correlations were used to assess relationships between intermediate and final rankings. In addition, intermediate rankings of the winner of each race were examined.
In 1500 m (13.5 laps of 111.12 m), correlations between intermediate and final ranking gradually increased throughout the race (eg, lap 1, r = .05; lap 7, r = .26; lap 13, r = .85). Moreover, the percentage of race winners skating in the leading position was over 50% during the last 3 laps. Top finishers were faster than bottom-place finishers only during the last 5 laps, with on average 0.1- to 1.5-s faster lap times of the race winners compared with the others during the last 5 laps.
Although a fast start led to faster finishing times, top finishers were faster than bottom-placed finishers only during the last 5 laps. Moreover, tactical positioning at 1 of the foremost positions during the latter phase of the race appeared to be a strong determinant of finishing position.
Olaf S. Noorbergen, Marco J. Konings, Dominic Micklewright, Marije T. Elferink-Gemser, and Florentina J. Hettinga
To explore pacing behavior and tactical positioning during the shorter 500- and 1000-m short-track competitions.
Lap times and intermediate rankings of elite 500- and 1000-m short-track-skating competitors were collected over the 2012–13 season. First, lap times were analyzed using a MANOVA, and for each lap, differences between sex, race type, final ranking, and stage of competition were determined. Second, Kendall tau-b correlations were used to assess relationships between intermediate and final rankings. In addition, intermediate rankings of the winner of each race were examined.
Top-placed athletes appeared faster than bottom-placed athletes in every lap in the 500-m, while in the 1000-m no differences were found until the final 4 laps (P < .05). Correlations between intermediate and final rankings were already high at the beginning stages of the 50-m (lap 1: r = .59) but not for the 1000-m (lap 1: r = .21).
Although 500- and 1000-m short-track races are both relatively short, fundamental differences in pacing behavior and tactical positioning were found. A fast-start strategy seems to be optimal for 500-m races, while the crucial segment in 1000-m races seems to be from the 6th lap to the finish line (ie, after ± 650 m). These findings provide evidence to suggest that athletes balance between choosing an energetically optimal profile and the tactical and positional benefits that play a role when riding against an opponent, as well as contributing to developing novel insights in exploring athletic behavior when racing against opponents.
Merrill J. Melnick
It is argued that the social forces of urbanization, individualism, interpersonal competition, technology, and geographical mobility have brought greater and greater numbers of strangers into people's everyday lives and have made the achievement of primary, social ties with relatives, friends, neighbors, and workmates more difficult. As a result, many are forced to satisfy their needs for sociability in less personal, less intimate, less private ways. It is proposed that sports spectating has emerged as a major urban structure where spectators come together not only to be entertained but to enrich their social psychological lives through the sociable, quasi-intimate relationships available. The changing nature of the sociability experience in America presents sport managers with interesting challenges and opportunities. A number of recommendations are offered for maximizing the gemeinschaft possibilities of sports spectating facilities. By giving greater attention to the individual and communal possibilities of their events, sport managers can increase spectator attendance while rendering an important public service.
Thiago Oliveira Borges, Nicola Bullock, David Aitken, Gregory R. Cox, and Aaron J. Coutts
. Can J Appl Physiol . 2002 ; 27 ( 2 ): 602 – 611 . doi:10.1139/h02-035 10.1139/h02-035 10. Konings MJ , Hettinga FJ . Pacing decision making in sport and the effects of interpersonal competition: a critical review . Sports Med . 2018 ; 48 ( 8 ): 1829 – 1843 . PubMed ID: 29799094 doi:10.1007/s
Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga
.1007/s40279-013-0091-4 23990402 3. Konings MJ , Hettinga FJ . Pacing decision-making in sport and the effects of interpersonal competition: a critical review . Sports Med . 2018 ; 48 ( 8 ): 1829 – 1843 . PubMed ID: 29799094 doi:10.1007/s40279-018-0937-x 29799094 10.1007/s40279-018-0937-x 4. Ulmer
Thomas Curran and Andrew P. Hill
following achievement stress extends to interpersonal competition (not just to failure to attain personal goals) and to an array of self-conscious emotions (not just perceived threat). We also found that, following competitive failure, self-oriented perfectionism did not predict changes in shame. The
Carl Foster, Daniel Boullosa, Michael McGuigan, Andrea Fusco, Cristina Cortis, Blaine E. Arney, Bo Orton, Christopher Dodge, Salvador Jaime, Kim Radtke, Teun van Erp, Jos J. de Koning, Daniel Bok, Jose A. Rodriguez-Marroyo, and John P. Porcari
. PubMed ID: 19211587 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2008.056036 10.1136/bjsm.2008.056036 19211587 32. Konings M , Hettinga FJ . Pacing decision making in sport and the effects of interpersonal competition: a critical review . Sports Med . 2018 ; 48 ( 8 ): 1829 – 1843 . PubMed ID: 29799094 doi:10.1007/s40279
Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen, and Ørnulf N. Seippel
( Roberts, 2012 ). A PE teacher promotes a performance climate by underlining social comparison and interpersonal competition, by punishing mistakes, and by providing differentiated feedback based on a normative understanding of ability. A performance climate is believed to create PE contexts that celebrate