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James Scifers and Jill Manners

Column-editor : James M. Mensch

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Victoria McGee and J.D. DeFreese

implications of coach-player interactions and interpersonal relationships. Future work could build upon current study findings by designing interventions to increase athlete perceptions of closeness and complementarity with the coach as a means to increase athlete engagement. Further, though not a focus of the

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David Cardenas, Karla A. Henderson and Beth E. Wilson

The purpose of the article was to examine the physical activity perceptions and behaviors of older adults who were active participants in a statewide senior games (i.e., North Carolina Senior Games; NCSG) program with its focus on year-round involvement through activities in local communities. A random sample of 440 older adults (55 years and older) completed a questionnaire in 2006 about their participation in community-based senior games. A uniqueness of this study is its focus on active older adults, which provides insight into how to maintain physical involvement. Older adults who were most active perceived the most benefits from senior games but did not necessarily have the fewest constraints. This study of NCSG as an organization designed to promote healthy living in communities offered an example of how a social-ecological framework aimed at health promotion can be applied.

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Kathryn T. Goode and David L. Roth

Experienced runners completed a Thoughts During Running Scale (TORS) immediately after a typical training run to assess the prevalence of certain thoughts during running. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was also completed before and after the run. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a five-factor model provided better fit than simpler models. Items concerning the demands of the running activity and the monitoring of body responses loaded on one "associative" factor. The four "nonassociative" factors in this model were labeled Daily Events, Interpersonal Relationships, External Surroundings, and Spiritual Reflection. Correlational analyses indicated small but significant relationships between the TDRS dimensions and changes in mood. Increases in vigor were correlated with the tendency to engage in nonassociative thought, and decreases in tension and anxiety were found among those who thought about interpersonal relationships during the run. These results supplement findings on the effects of certain thought patterns during strenuous exercise.

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Alice M. Buchanan, Benjamin Miedema and Georgia C. Frey

The purpose of this study was to investigate parent perceptions of the physical activity (PA) engagement of their adult children with autism spectrum disorders. The theoretical framework used in this study was social ecology. Participants were nine parents from families with one adult child with autism spectrum disorder whose ages ranged from 18 to 42. Using phenomenological interviews, which explored parents’ life experience and meaning making, four themes were generated: supports and advocacy for PA, engaging in PA independently, benefits of PA, and barriers to or reasons for disengaging in particular activities. Parents’ interview comments showed that intrapersonal factors, interpersonal relationships, and community factors were essential for keeping the individuals with autism spectrum disorder engaged in PA. Families and practitioners can take advantage of that by seeking PA opportunities in community settings or with other individuals.

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Dallas Branch Jr.

Intercollegiate athletics has come under increasing scrutiny. Questions of leadership and the NCAA’s Presidents’ Commission reflect new levels of exposure and commitment to clean the athletic house. The problem of defining the academic/athletic balance in big-time college sports has polarized faculty, administrators, and athletic leaders at many colleges and universities. The purpose of this study was to examine athletic director and selected assistant perceptions of leader behavior to determine whether their perceptions contributed significantly to the prediction of intercollegiate organizational effectiveness. Findings indicate that effective athletic organizations have leaders who are more predisposed to goal and task accomplishment than to developing good interpersonal relationships with their subordinates. Contemporary leadership theory and management philosophy suggests that organizations that can accomplish both are most effective. Athletic directors may want to adjust their leadership behaviors to meet the managerial demands of today’s intercollegiate athletic program.

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Peter R. Giacobbi Jr., Taryn K. Lynn, Jaclyn M. Wetherington, Jamie Jenkins, Melissa Bodendorf and Brad Langley

The present study explored the sources of stress and coping strategies of five female first-year university swimmers. The results of group and individual interviews revealed the major sources of stress experienced by our participants were training intensity, high performance expectations, interpersonal relationships, being away from home, and academics. The participants utilized social support, emotional release, and humor/fun as their primary coping responses during the early part of their first year. As the year progressed, cognitive coping responses such as positive reinterpretation and task focus emerged. In addition, important people in the athletic context influenced the participants’ interpretation of stress. The results shed light on the dynamic nature of the coping process and offered support for the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).

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Jessica M. Lutkenhouse

The present case study illustrates the treatment of a 19-year-old female lacrosse player, classified as experiencing Performance Dysfunction (Pdy) by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP). The self-referred collegiate athlete was treated using the manualized Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) protocol (Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007). The intervention consisted of eight individual sessions and several follow-up contacts via e-mail. The majority of the sessions addressed clinically related and sport-related concerns, including difficulties in emotion regulation and problematic interpersonal relationships. Based on self-report, coach report, and one outcome assessment measure, the psychological intervention resulted in enhanced overall behavioral functioning and enhanced athletic performance. This case study suggests that following careful case formulation based on appropriate assessment and interview data, the MAC intervention successfully targeted the clearly defined psychological processes underlying the athlete’s performance concerns and personal obstacles, thus resulting in enhanced well-being and athletic performance improvements.

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Michael B. Johnson

The primary purpose of the current article is to supply those who wish to attain employment as a sport psychologist within a university athletic department (SPAD) with relevant information. The content herein describes one clinician’s path to becoming a SPAD, from undergraduate education to current-day work. The author often receives requests (between six and ten a year) from aspiring sport psychologists for information on how he attained his position. The current article begins with a concise presentation of the author’s background. This is followed by a brief overview of his current work. What follows are succinct recommendations for those who seek similar positions, including thoughts on (a) training, (b) the idiosyncratic personality-work environment fit, and (c) developing efficacious interpersonal relationships with those responsible for hiring such positions.

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Paul Wylleman, Paul De Knop, Joke Delhoux and Yves Vanden Auweele

Academic background, consultation processes, and training and support were assessed with semistructured interviews among 18 sport psychology consultants (60% of total membership) of the Flemish Society of Sport Psychology. A total of 61% of consultants were trained as clinical psychologists, most with limited sport psychology background. Assessments revealed that interpersonal relationships skills and communication (63%) and fear of failure (55%) were the most common concerns, whereas stress management (54%), enhancement of relationship and communication skills (31%), and visualization and goal setting (31%) were used in interventions. Recommendations for enhancing the development of applied sport psychology in Flanders include specialization in sport psychology at the academic level, continued sport psychology consultation training, and a better coordination between sport psychology consultants and the world of sports.