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Paul A. Davis, Louise Davis, Samuel Wills, Ralph Appleby, and Arne Nieuwenhuys

, Hanton, & Fletcher, 2009 ; Ruiz & Hanin, 2011 ; Woodman et al., 2009 ). More recently, research has moved beyond the emotion that is experienced by individual athletes and started to consider the social or interpersonal aspects of emotion that occur between athletes (predominantly teammates; Campo et

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Alexander W.J. Freemantle, Lorenzo D. Stafford, Christopher R.D. Wagstaff, and Lucy Akehurst

 al., 2020 ; Seve et al., 2007 ). Athletes’ emotions have also been found to develop as a result of the interpersonal emotional influence exhibited by their coaches, opposition, and teammates. For instance, Van Kleef ( 2009 ) explained in the Emotions as Social Information (EASI) model that other

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Takashi Shimazaki, Hiroaki Taniguchi, and Masao Kikkawa

that NC contributed to the formulation of impression on interpersonal communication more significantly than other communication channels ( Dobrescu, 2014 ; Mehrabian & Wiener, 1967 ). In coaching, verbal instructions with body language facilitate improved performance, according to the observational

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Meredith Rocchi and Luc G. Pelletier

Existing research has suggested that coaches promote athlete success both within and outside of sport through their interpersonal behaviors and their coaching styles (e.g., Mageau & Vallerand, 2003 ). To date, most of this research has been athlete-focused and has not taken into consideration how

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Nikos Ntoumanis, Vassilis Barkoukis, Daniel F. Gucciardi, and Derwin King Chung Chan

. Coach Interpersonal Styles Although there are various influential social factors in sport, undoubtedly coaches play the most important role in shaping the psychological experiences and behaviors of their athletes ( Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2009 ; Mageau & Vallerand, 2003 ). In fact

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Jeemin Kim, Katherine A. Tamminen, Constance Harris, and Sara Sutherland

, and interpersonal outcomes in sport contexts ( Hanin, 2007 ; Jones & Uphill, 2012 ). Intuitively, pleasant emotions such as happiness or excitement can lead to facilitative outcomes, and unpleasant emotions such as anxiety or anger can lead to debilitative outcomes ( Fredrickson, 1998 ), and sport

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Francisco M. Leo, Behzad Behzadnia, Miguel A. López-Gajardo, Marco Batista, and Juan J. Pulido

behaviors are essential to generate these positive experiences for student learning ( Haerens et al., 2015 ). The teacher-generated classroom atmosphere can produce a series of interpersonal and multidirectional teacher–student and student–student interactions, leading to the appearance of adaptive or

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Cassandra Sparks, Chris Lonsdale, James Dimmock, and Ben Jackson

students’ self-determined motivation ( Jang, Reeve, Ryan, & Kim, 2009 ). Finally, to nurture students’ sense of relatedness, teachers can adopt an interpersonally involving (i.e., relatedness-supportive; the terms interpersonally involving and relatedness-supportive are used interchangeably) style by

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Stephen Mellalieu, David A. Shearer, and Catherine Shearer

Interpersonal conflict is a common factor reported by governing bodies and their athletes when preparing for, or competing in, major games and championships (Olusoga, Butt, Hays, & Maynard, 2009). The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary exploration of a UK home nation’s athletes, management, and support staff experiences of interpersonal conflict during competition. Ninety participants who had represented or worked for their nation at major games or championships completed a detailed survey of interpersonal conflict experiences associated with competition. The results suggest athletes, coaches, and team managers are at the greatest risk from interpersonal conflict, while the competition venue and athlete village are where the most incidences of conflict occur. Interpersonal conflict was also suggested to predominantly lead to negative cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences (disagreement, anger, upset, loss in concentration). Findings are discussed in the context of the experience of the interpersonal conflict with provisional recommendations offered for developing effective strategies for conflict management.

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Thomas A. Stoffregen, M. Russell Giveans, Sebastien Villard, Jane Redfield Yank, and Kevin Shockley

When two standing people converse with each other there is an increase in their shared postural activity, relative to conversation with different partners. We asked pairs of participants to converse with each other or with experimental confederates while standing on rigid and nonrigid surfaces. On the rigid surface, shared postural activity was greater when participants conversed with each other than when they conversed with confederates. In addition, the strength of interpersonal coupling increased across trials, but only when members of a dyad conversed with each other. On the nonrigid surface, postural sway variability increased, but we found no evidence that shared postural activity was different when participants conversed with each other, as opposed to conversing with confederates. We consider several possible interpretations of these results.