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Paul A. Davis, Louise Davis, Samuel Wills, Ralph Appleby, and Arne Nieuwenhuys

, Hanton, & Fletcher, 2009 ; Ruiz & Hanin, 2011 ; Woodman et al., 2009 ). More recently, research has moved beyond the emotion that is experienced by individual athletes and started to consider the social or interpersonal aspects of emotion that occur between athletes (predominantly teammates; Campo et

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Takashi Shimazaki, Hiroaki Taniguchi, and Masao Kikkawa

that NC contributed to the formulation of impression on interpersonal communication more significantly than other communication channels ( Dobrescu, 2014 ; Mehrabian & Wiener, 1967 ). In coaching, verbal instructions with body language facilitate improved performance, according to the observational

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Meredith Rocchi and Luc G. Pelletier

Existing research has suggested that coaches promote athlete success both within and outside of sport through their interpersonal behaviors and their coaching styles (e.g., Mageau & Vallerand, 2003 ). To date, most of this research has been athlete-focused and has not taken into consideration how

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Nikos Ntoumanis, Vassilis Barkoukis, Daniel F. Gucciardi, and Derwin King Chung Chan

. Coach Interpersonal Styles Although there are various influential social factors in sport, undoubtedly coaches play the most important role in shaping the psychological experiences and behaviors of their athletes ( Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2009 ; Mageau & Vallerand, 2003 ). In fact

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Jeemin Kim, Katherine A. Tamminen, Constance Harris, and Sara Sutherland

, and interpersonal outcomes in sport contexts ( Hanin, 2007 ; Jones & Uphill, 2012 ). Intuitively, pleasant emotions such as happiness or excitement can lead to facilitative outcomes, and unpleasant emotions such as anxiety or anger can lead to debilitative outcomes ( Fredrickson, 1998 ), and sport

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Thomas A. Stoffregen, M. Russell Giveans, Sebastien Villard, Jane Redfield Yank, and Kevin Shockley

When two standing people converse with each other there is an increase in their shared postural activity, relative to conversation with different partners. We asked pairs of participants to converse with each other or with experimental confederates while standing on rigid and nonrigid surfaces. On the rigid surface, shared postural activity was greater when participants conversed with each other than when they conversed with confederates. In addition, the strength of interpersonal coupling increased across trials, but only when members of a dyad conversed with each other. On the nonrigid surface, postural sway variability increased, but we found no evidence that shared postural activity was different when participants conversed with each other, as opposed to conversing with confederates. We consider several possible interpretations of these results.

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Dennis A. Kelly

Based on the working hypothesis that optimal psychological strategies for athletic performance can be employed only when the nature of the task is understood, an instrument was developed that identified systematically the varying physical, cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal requirements of a wide range of athletic activities, A sample of 753 Naval Academy midshipmen with experience and expertise in different sports rated their sport along a number of dimensions, constituting the items in the instrument. These ratings were submitted to a principal-component factor analysis, and 41' items were retained and organized into eight subscales based on the component loadings. Items and subscales were psychometrically stable and homogeneous. Standardized profiles were then constructed for the rated requirements of 48 sports. An additional principal-component analysis yielded second-order components which led to the combining of sports with similar profiles. The 48 sports were thereby reduced to 18 clusters. Some applications of this approach are offered, as well as ideas for future research.

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Cassandra Sparks, Chris Lonsdale, James Dimmock, and Ben Jackson

students’ self-determined motivation ( Jang, Reeve, Ryan, & Kim, 2009 ). Finally, to nurture students’ sense of relatedness, teachers can adopt an interpersonally involving (i.e., relatedness-supportive; the terms interpersonally involving and relatedness-supportive are used interchangeably) style by

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Stephen Mellalieu, David A. Shearer, and Catherine Shearer

Interpersonal conflict is a common factor reported by governing bodies and their athletes when preparing for, or competing in, major games and championships (Olusoga, Butt, Hays, & Maynard, 2009). The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary exploration of a UK home nation’s athletes, management, and support staff experiences of interpersonal conflict during competition. Ninety participants who had represented or worked for their nation at major games or championships completed a detailed survey of interpersonal conflict experiences associated with competition. The results suggest athletes, coaches, and team managers are at the greatest risk from interpersonal conflict, while the competition venue and athlete village are where the most incidences of conflict occur. Interpersonal conflict was also suggested to predominantly lead to negative cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences (disagreement, anger, upset, loss in concentration). Findings are discussed in the context of the experience of the interpersonal conflict with provisional recommendations offered for developing effective strategies for conflict management.

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David E. Conroy and Lorna Smith Benjamin

Psychodynamic concepts have only recently begun to attract serious attention in the sport psychology literature. A dynamically based, interpersonal approach to sport psychology consultation is outlined in this article. Key interpersonal constructs such as important persons and their internalized representations (IPIRs), copy processes, and self-sacrificing gifts of love are described to portray how a case formulation may be developed to explain and guide interventions to overcome some performance problems. Two cases, one involving a performance phobia and the other an enduring slump related to a fear of success, are presented to demonstrate the unique contributions of interpersonal case formulations in performance enhancement consultation.