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Ariel J. Dimler, Kimberley McFadden and Tara-Leigh F. McHugh

as a result of “lifelong learning and gendered socialization” (p. 273). The aforementioned studies demonstrate how phenomenological approaches can be used to better understand women’s experiences of their bodies, specifically within the context of fitness. An interpretative phenomenological analysis

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Jack A. G. Marlow and Mark Uphill

This study explored the characteristics, contextual factors and consequences of counterfactual thoughts in seven elite athletes using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Counterfactuals were experienced regularly with self-directed and upward counterfactuals (cognitions about how things could be better) being most frequent. These upward counterfactuals typically occurred following performance that was below participants’ goals and expectations. These thoughts were perceived by participants to have a negative affect initially, and that they then led to facilitative behavioral consequences around learning and development. Some elements of counterfactual thinking could be used as a useful reflective tool to encourage elite athletes to problem solve and motivate cognitive, emotional and behavioral change to enhance future performance.

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Kassi A. Boyd and Donna L. Goodwin

and participant interactions ( Guba & Lincoln, 1994 ; Markula & Silk, 2011 ). Consistent with an interpretivist research paradigm, an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) case study research approach was employed to gain an in-depth understanding of the family’s experiences of dignity

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Kelsey DeGrave, Stephen Pack and Brian Hemmings

Participants Consistent with Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA; Smith, 1996 ), using a personal contact, a snowball sampling method was used to approach professional male cricketers from England and Wales who had encountered a career-ending injury. The participants had substantial experiences of

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Simon J. Sebire, Martyn Standage, Fiona B. Gillison and Maarten Vansteenkiste

Goals are central to exercise motivation, although not all goals (e.g., health vs. appearance goals) are equally psychologically or behaviorally adaptive. Within goal content theory (Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, & Soenens, 2010), goals are adaptive to the extent to which they satisfy psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. However, little is known about what exercisers pursuing different goals are feeling, doing, thinking, and paying attention to that may help to explain the association between goal contents and need satisfaction. Using semistructured interviews and interpretative phenomenological analysis, we explored experiences of exercise among 11 adult exercisers who reported pursuing either predominantly intrinsic or extrinsic goals. Four themes emerged: (a) observation of others and resulting emotions, (b) goal expectations and time perspective, (c) markers of progress and (d) reactions to (lack of) goal achievement. Intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuers reported divergent experiences within these four domains. The findings illuminate potential mechanisms by which different goals may influence psychological and behavioral outcomes in the exercise context.

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Diarmuid Hurley and Montse C. Ruiz

This study documented the lived career-ending injury experiences among elite Irish rugby football union (IRFU) players. Three players took part in semistructured one-on-one interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, 1996) revealed that the process of psychosocial injury rehabilitation and the subsequent transition process was for the most part a distressing one and evolved in a cyclical, yet stage-like (Heil, 1994), manner. The nature of the postinjury career transition appeared to be dependent on the interactional balance of participants’ psychosocial responses to injury, existing coping mechanisms, and other factors related to the injury and career transition process. Appropriate social support network, use of sport medicine and counseling professionals, as well as organizational officials are needed to best prepare elite rugby players for life outside of sport, and to ensure a healthy career transition (Taylor & Ogilvie, 1994) out of sport.

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Meghan H. McDonough, Catherine M. Sabiston and Sarah Ullrich-French

Physical activity experiences may contribute to psychological and social wellbeing among breast cancer survivors. The main purpose of the current study was to qualitatively explore the development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth among breast cancer survivors participating in a dragon boat program over 19 months. Guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009), semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 breast cancer survivors on five occasions over their first two seasons of dragon boating. Narrative accounts were developed for each participant, and four profiles emerged describing processes of social and posttraumatic growth development over time: “developing a feisty spirit of survivorship,” “I don’t want it to be just about me,” “it’s not about the pink it’s about the paddling,” and “hard to get close.” Profiles were discussed in terms of developing social relationships and support, providing support to others, physicality and athleticism, and negative interactions and experiences.

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Jennifer Leo and Donna Goodwin

The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological analysis study was to explore the meaning persons who experience disability ascribed to disability simulations as a pedagogical tool. Reflective writing, one-on-one interviews, and field notes were used to gather information on disability simulation use in a required postsecondary kinesiology course. Seven people who use wheelchairs full time (3 men, 4 women), ranging in age from 28 to 44 yr (average age = 36) shared their perspectives. The thematic analysis revealed 3 themes. The theme “Disability Mentors Required” revealed the participants’ collective questioning of their absence from the design and implementation of disability simulations. “Life Is Not a Simulation” illustrated the juxtaposition of disability reality and disability simulations. “Why Are They Laughing?” contrasted the use of fun as a strategy to engage students against the risk of distracting them from deeper reflection. Through the lens of ableism, the importance of disability representation in the development and implementation of disability simulations was affirmed as a means to deepen pedagogical reflexiveness of their intended use.

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Justin A. Haegele and T. Nicole Kirk

visual impairment, this study utilized an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) research approach. IPA is concerned with examining how participants make sense of their personal and social worlds, and the meaning that experiences within those worlds hold for them ( Smith, Jarman, & Osborn, 1999

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Tanya McGuane, Stephen Shannon, Lee-Ann Sharp, Martin Dempster and Gavin Breslin

that social and cultural influences are evident in disordered eating has been supported by four athletes of different sports, in which the researchers ( Papathomas & Lavallee, 2010 ) used interpretative phenomenological analysis—a method of purposively selecting samples and providing participants an