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Stephanie J. Facchini, Matthew C. Hoch, Deanna H. Smith and Johanna M. Hoch

Context:

The intrinsic foot muscle test (IFMT) is purported to identify intrinsic foot muscle (IFM) weakness during clinical examination. However, before this test can be used in clinical practice the clinometric properties must be determined. In addition, it is unclear if the IFMT provides information regarding the integrity of the foot arch beyond static foot posture assessments such as the navicular drop test (NDT).

Objective:

To determine the reliability of the IFMT as well as its correlation with the NDT.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Patients or other Participants:

Two novice ATs served as the raters. The NDT was assessed by a third investigator during the first session. Twenty-five participants (16 females, 9 males; age: 22.4 ± 1.7 years; height: 170.8 ± 10.2 cm; mass: 73.5 ± 12.8 kg) completed two data collection sessions separated by one week.

Interventions:

During each session the IFMT was assessed bilaterally in a counterbalanced order by the raters. Each test was rated simultaneously by both raters during each trial and the raters were blinded to each other’s results during and between test sessions.

Main Outcome Measures:

The independent variable was time (session one and session two) and the dependent variables included rating on the IFMT and navicular drop height.

Results:

Intrarater agreement was poor to fair (κ = .03−.41) and interrater agreement was fair to moderate (κ = .25−.60). Post hoc Wilcoxon rank tests demonstrated a significant number of participants improved between sessions for both raters. A weak correlation was observed between the NDT and IFMT for both right (r = −.14 to .04, p < .49) and left (r = −.19 to .07, p < .37) feet.

conclusion:

The IFMT demonstrated poor to fair intrarater and fair to moderate interrater agreement, suggesting future research is needed to modify this method of measuring IFM function. The improvement between sessions indicates a potential familiarization period within the test. The weak correlation between the IFMT and NDT indicates these tests evaluate different aspects of foot function.

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Britton W. Brewer, Joshua B. Avondoglio, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, John C. Brickner, Albert J. Petitpas, Gregory S. Kolt, Tania Pizzari, Adrian M.M. Schoo, Kelley Emery and Stephen J. Hatten

Context:

Adherence to clinic-based rehabilitation might influence outcomes.

Objective:

To examine the construct validity and interrater agreement of a measure of adherence to clinic-based rehabilitation.

Design:

Repeated-measures in both study 1 and study 2.

Participants:

43 student rehabilitation practitioners in study 1 and 12 patients undergoing rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in study 2.

Interventions:

Participants in study 1 rated the adherence of a simulated videotaped patient exhibiting high, moderate, and low adherence. Two certified athletic trainers rated the adherence of patients at 4 consecutive appointments in study 2.

Main Outcome Measure:

The Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale.

Results:

In study 1, adherence ratings increased in a linear fashion across the 3 levels of adherence, and r WG(J) and rater-agreement-index values ranging from .84 to .95 were obtained. In study 2, the rater-agreement index was .94.

Conclusions:

Strong support was found for the construct validity and interrater agreement of the Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale.

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Eric A. Sorenson

Context:

The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) consists of a battery of seven tests that are widely used to systematically evaluate movement.

Objective:

To evaluate the interrater agreement and intrarater reliability of FMS scores assigned by athletic trainers who reviewed video recordings of the movements.

Design:

Interrater agreement and test–retest intrarater reliability.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Subjects:

Eight athletic trainers rated the movements of 15 college-aged participants.

Measurements:

Component and composite FMS scores.

Results:

Median values for interrater agreement (0.90) and intrarater reliability (0.88) of the FMS composite score were acceptable. With the exception of the rotary stability test, all of the component scores demonstrated acceptable values for scoring consistency (> 0.80).

Conclusions:

Both component and composite FMS scores assigned by athletic trainers were highly consistent, both in terms of scores assigned by different raters and scores assigned by the same raters on two different occasions.

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Katie Weatherson, Lira Yun, Kelly Wunderlich, Eli Puterman and Guy Faulkner

week [dummy coded and Monday as reference group], time of day, EMA prompt type [REMA vs FEMA]). Each variable was tested separately. To assess objective 3 (criterion validity), Cohen kappa was calculated to check interrater agreement between EMA-reported and device-measured position at the time of the

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Abbey C. Thomas, Brian G. Pietrosimone and Carter J. Bayer

Context: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may provide important information regarding the corticospinal mechanisms that may contribute to the neuromuscular activation impairments. Paired-pulse TMS testing is a reliable method for measuring intracortical facilitation and inhibition; however, little evidence exists regarding agreement of these measures in the quadriceps. Objective: To determine the between-sessions and interrater agreement of intracortical excitability (short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition [SICI, LICI] and intracortical facilitation [ICF]) in the dominant-limb quadriceps. Design: Reliability study. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 13 healthy volunteers (n = 6 women; age 24.7 ± 2.1 y; height 1.7 ± 0.1 m; mass 77.1 ± 17.4 kg). Intervention: Participants completed 2 TMS sessions separated by 1 wk. Main Outcome Measures: Two investigators measured quadriceps SICI, LICI, and ICF at rest and actively (5% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction). All participants were seated in a dynamometer with the knee flexed to 90°. Intracortical-excitability paradigm and investigator order were randomized. Bland-Altman analyses were used to establish agreement. Results: Agreement was stronger between sessions within a single investigator than between investigators and for active than resting measures. Agreement was strongest for resting SICI and active ICF and LICI between sessions for each investigator. Conclusions: Quadriceps intracortical excitability may be measured longitudinally by a single investigator, though active muscle contraction should be elicited during testing.

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Stephen M. Glass, Alessandro Napoli, Elizabeth D. Thompson, Iyad Obeid and Carole A. Tucker

scoring by trained observers, we examined interrater (human vs human) and intersystem (AAPS vs human) agreement. We hypothesized that (1) interrater agreement of (human) BESS scoring would range from good (interclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .6 to .75, the upper portion of Fleiss’ “fair to good

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Bianca Miarka, Fábio Dal Bello, Ciro J. Brito, Fabrício B. Del Vecchio, John Amtmann and Karim Chamari

correlation interrater agreement measures: less than .40—poor, between .40 and .59—fair, between .60 and .74—good, and between .75 and 1.00—excellent. Statistical Analysis Regarding the statistical analysis, 2-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc tests were used to compare the total and relative

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Mohammadreza Pourahmadi, Hamid Hesarikia, Ali Ghanjal and Alireza Shamsoddini

point for high quality. 16 , 17 When an item was not applicable to a study, its value was not taken into account in the total percentage. The level of interrater agreement was measured using Cohen kappa coefficient, with a method developed for comparing the level of agreement with categorical data

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Jon Welty Peachey, Laura Burton, Janelle Wells and Mi Ryoung Chung

really matter to me”; Van Den Broeck et al., 2010 ). Analysis Prior to examining the hypotheses, listwise deletion occurred, scale reliability was evaluated, interrater agreement was investigated, and descriptive statistics were estimated (see Table  1 ). Once no violations were discovered and

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Simon A. Rogers, Peter Hassmén, Alexandra H. Roberts, Alison Alcock, Wendy L. Gilleard and John S. Warmenhoven

study (ICC = .96). However, the AAA overhead squat interrater agreement between 5 raters was stronger than the agreement between the current study’s 2 raters ( k  = .77 vs .59). This may be explained by the differences in experience levels and number of raters of the current study. While the first 3