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Marissa C. Gradoz, Lauren E. Bauer, Terry L. Grindstaff and Jennifer J. Bagwell

ROM positions may inform clinical practice. Previous studies have reported goniometric supine hip IR ROM interrater reliability ranging from fair to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .44–.75) 6 , 7 and excellent intrarater reliability (ICC = .88–.95). 3 , 7 Supine hip ER ROM

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Johanna S. Rosén, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Keith Tolfrey, Anton Arndt and Anna Bjerkefors

systems are reliable. If classifiers are classifying athletes with similar impairments inconsistently, then the credibility of the classifiers and the classification system becomes flawed. Two sports have examined the interrater reliability (IRR) of tests used in their classification: wheelchair rugby and

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Johanne Desrosiers, François Prince, Annie Rochette and Michel Raîche

The objectives of this study were to standardize measurement procedures and study the test-retest and interrater reliability of the belt-resisted method for measuring the lower extremity isometric strength of three muscle groups. The strength of 33 healthy, elderly, community-dwelling subjects was evaluated with a hand-held dynamometer using the belt-resisted method. Isometric strength testing of three muscle groups (hip flexors, knee extensors, and ankle dorsiflexors) was performed on two separate occasions, I week apart, by the same tester to determine test-retest reliability. The test results of two different examiners testing on different days were used to determine interrater reliability. Test-retest reliability was higher than interrater reliability. Test-retest reliability coefficients of the three muscle groups were high (J9-.95). For interrater reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients varied from .64 to .92. depending on the muscle group and side. For the two kinds of reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients increased from proximal to distal. The method for the hip muscle group should be modified to increase reliability of the measure.

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Stef Feijen, Angela Tate, Kevin Kuppens, Thomas Struyf, Anke Claes and Filip Struyf

yet been investigated in competitive swimmers who may experience changes in physical characteristics of the muscle. Consequently, this study aims to investigate the within-session intrarater and interrater reliability of measuring shoulder flexion ROM for LDF in competitive swimmers aged 10–20 years

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Marissa L. Mason, Marissa N. Clemons, Kaylyn B. LaBarre, Nicole R. Szymczak and Nicole J. Chimera

10 represents the poorest neuromuscular performance, with all flaws present, and a score of 0 represents the best performance, with no flaws present. 5 – 7 Focused Clinical Question Does the TJA demonstrate both interrater and intrarater reliability in healthy individuals? Summary of Search, Best

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Stephanie J. Facchini, Matthew C. Hoch, Deanna H. Smith and Johanna M. Hoch

Context:

The intrinsic foot muscle test (IFMT) is purported to identify intrinsic foot muscle (IFM) weakness during clinical examination. However, before this test can be used in clinical practice the clinometric properties must be determined. In addition, it is unclear if the IFMT provides information regarding the integrity of the foot arch beyond static foot posture assessments such as the navicular drop test (NDT).

Objective:

To determine the reliability of the IFMT as well as its correlation with the NDT.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Patients or other Participants:

Two novice ATs served as the raters. The NDT was assessed by a third investigator during the first session. Twenty-five participants (16 females, 9 males; age: 22.4 ± 1.7 years; height: 170.8 ± 10.2 cm; mass: 73.5 ± 12.8 kg) completed two data collection sessions separated by one week.

Interventions:

During each session the IFMT was assessed bilaterally in a counterbalanced order by the raters. Each test was rated simultaneously by both raters during each trial and the raters were blinded to each other’s results during and between test sessions.

Main Outcome Measures:

The independent variable was time (session one and session two) and the dependent variables included rating on the IFMT and navicular drop height.

Results:

Intrarater agreement was poor to fair (κ = .03−.41) and interrater agreement was fair to moderate (κ = .25−.60). Post hoc Wilcoxon rank tests demonstrated a significant number of participants improved between sessions for both raters. A weak correlation was observed between the NDT and IFMT for both right (r = −.14 to .04, p < .49) and left (r = −.19 to .07, p < .37) feet.

conclusion:

The IFMT demonstrated poor to fair intrarater and fair to moderate interrater agreement, suggesting future research is needed to modify this method of measuring IFM function. The improvement between sessions indicates a potential familiarization period within the test. The weak correlation between the IFMT and NDT indicates these tests evaluate different aspects of foot function.

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Scott L. Bruce, Jared R. Rush, Megan M. Torres and Kyle J. Lipscomb

There is an absence of literature pertaining to the reliability of core muscular endurance tests. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest and interrater reliability of four core muscular endurance tests. Participants were physically active, college students. Data were gathered during three trials for each core test. Participants were timed by two test administrators (raters) until the participant could no longer hold the test position. Test-retest reliability values ranged from 0.57–0.85 for all three trials, and from 0.80–0.89 for the latter two trials. Interrater reliability values ranged from 0.99–1.00 for all three trials of all four tests. Although the participants were not athletes, we were able to demonstrate good test-retest and interrater reliability for the core muscular endurance tests assessed.

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Britton W. Brewer, Joshua B. Avondoglio, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, John C. Brickner, Albert J. Petitpas, Gregory S. Kolt, Tania Pizzari, Adrian M.M. Schoo, Kelley Emery and Stephen J. Hatten

Context:

Adherence to clinic-based rehabilitation might influence outcomes.

Objective:

To examine the construct validity and interrater agreement of a measure of adherence to clinic-based rehabilitation.

Design:

Repeated-measures in both study 1 and study 2.

Participants:

43 student rehabilitation practitioners in study 1 and 12 patients undergoing rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in study 2.

Interventions:

Participants in study 1 rated the adherence of a simulated videotaped patient exhibiting high, moderate, and low adherence. Two certified athletic trainers rated the adherence of patients at 4 consecutive appointments in study 2.

Main Outcome Measure:

The Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale.

Results:

In study 1, adherence ratings increased in a linear fashion across the 3 levels of adherence, and r WG(J) and rater-agreement-index values ranging from .84 to .95 were obtained. In study 2, the rater-agreement index was .94.

Conclusions:

Strong support was found for the construct validity and interrater agreement of the Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale.

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Brenda N. Wilson, Bonnie J. Kaplan, Susan G. Crawford and Deborah Dewey

To examine the reliability of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Long Form (BOTMP-LF), approximately 40 therapists completed a questionnaire on the administration and scoring of this test (72% response rate). A large degree of inconsistency between therapists was found. This prompted a study of interrater reliability of six therapists who received rigorous training on the BOTMP-LF. Results indicated that consistency of scoring between testers was statistically high for the battery, composite, and subtest scores. However, item-by-item agreement was low for many items, and agreement between raters on their diagnosis of the children as having motor problems was only fair to good. There was no difference in interrater reliability of the test for children with and without learning, attentional, or motor coordination problems. Some limitations of the BOTMP-LF are apparent from these studies.

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James Onate, Nelson Cortes, Cailee Welch and Bonnie Van Lunen

Context:

A clinical assessment tool that would allow for efficient large-group screening is needed to identify individuals potentially at risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.

Objective:

To assess the criterion validity of a jumplanding assessment tool compared with 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis and evaluate interrater reliability across an expert vs novice rater using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS).

Design:

Validity protocol.

Setting:

Controlled, laboratory.

Participants:

Nineteen female (age 19.58 ± .84 y, height 1.67 ± .05 m, mass 63.66 ± 10.11 kg) college soccer athletes volunteered.

Main Outcome Measurement:

Interrater reliability between expert rater (5 y LESS experience) vs novice rater (no LESS experience). LESS scores across 13 items and total score. 3D lower extremity kinematics were reduced to dichotomous values to match LESS items.

Interventions:

Participants performed drop-box landings from a 30-cm height with standard video-camera and 3D kinematic assessment.

Results:

Intrarater item reliability, assessed by kappa correlation, between novice and experienced LESS raters ranged from moderate to excellent (κ = .459–.875). Overall LESS score, assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, was excellent (ICC2,1 = .835, P < .001). Statistically significant phi correlation (P < .05) was found between rater and 3D scores for knee-valgus range of motion; however, percent agreement between expert rater and 3D scores revealed excellent agreement (range of 84–100%) for ankle flexion at initial contact, knee-flexion range of motion, trunk flexion at maximum knee flexion, and foot position at initial contact for both external and internal rotation of tibia. Moderate agreement was found between rater and 3D scores for trunk flexion at initial contact, stance width less than shoulder width, knee valgus at initial contact, and knee-valgus range of motion.

Conclusions:

Our findings support moderate to excellent validity and excellent expert vs novice interrater reliability of the LESS to accurately assess 3D kinematic motion patterns. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of the LESS to assess individuals at risk for ACL injury.