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Megan Q. Beard, Samantha A. Boland and Phillip A. Gribble

moderate to high intersession reliability, specifically for assessments of isometric HABD and HER strength. 4 – 6 Although these studies demonstrated that the reliability of a HHD for assessing hip isometric strength is acceptable, patient position and the incorporation of a stability strap were not

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Olivier Girard, Franck Brocherie, Jean-Benoit Morin and Grégoire P. Millet

Purpose:

To determine the intrasession and intersession (ie, within- and between-days) reliability in treadmill sprinting-performance outcomes and associated running mechanics.

Methods:

After familiarization, 13 male recreational sportsmen (team- and racket-sport background) performed three 5-s sprints on an instrumented treadmill with 2 min recovery on 3 different days, 5–7 d apart. Intrasession (comparison of the 3 sprints of the first session) and intersession (comparison of the average of the 3 sprints across days) reliability of performance, kinetics, kinematics, and spring-mass variables were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficients of variation (CV%).

Results:

Intrasession reliability was high (ICC > .94 and CV < 8%). Intersession reliability was good for performance indices (.83 < ICC < .89 and CV < 10%, yet with larger variability for mean velocity than for distance covered or propulsive power) and kinetic parameters (ICC > .94 and CV < 5%, yet with larger variability for mean horizontal forces than for mean vertical forces) and ranged from good to high for all kinematic (.88 < ICC < .95 and CV ≤ 3.5%) and spring-mass variables (.86 < ICC < .99 and CV ≤ 6.5%). Compared with intrasession, minimal detectable differences were on average twice larger for intersession designs, except for sprint kinetics.

Conclusion:

Instrumented treadmill sprint offers a reliable method of assessing running mechanics during single sprints either within the same session or between days.

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J. Ty Hopkins and Jason Adolph

Context:

The Omnikinetic closed-chain dynamometer calculates bilateral ankle, knee, and hip moments during a semirecumbent stepping motion against a predetermined load.

Objective:

To establish intersession reliability of several kinetic variables during different load and speed conditions over a 4-wk period.

Subjects:

19 healthy, physically active adults (age 21 ± 2 y, height 174.7 ± 10.5 cm, mass 74.0 ± 17.2 kg).

Measurement:

Peak measurements were recorded from the dominant leg for joint torque, power, root-mean-square (RMS) power, and knee shear.

Results:

Intersession reliability ranges across conditions were ankle torque .422−.947, ankle power .336−.877, ankle RMS .671−.893, knee torque .816−.918, knee power .823−.927, knee RMS .855−.943, knee shear .832−.936, hip torque .436−.752, hip power .691−.918, and hip RMS .448−.895.

Conclusions:

Moderate to strong reliability was observed in most measurements of the ankle and knee, whereas the hip showed increased variability.

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Guillaume Gaudet, Maxime Raison, Fabien Dal Maso, Sofiane Achiche and Mickael Begon

The aim of this study is to determine the intra- and intersession reliability of nonnormalized surface electromyography (sEMG) on the muscles actuating the forearm during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). A subobjective of this study is to determine the intra- and intersession reliability of forearm MVIC force or torque, which is a prerequisite to assess sEMG reliability. Eighteen healthy adults participated at 4 different times: baseline, 1-h post, 6-h post, and 24-h post. They performed 3 MVIC trials of forearm flexion, extension, pronation, and supination. sEMG of the biceps brachii short head, brachialis, brachioradialis, triceps brachii long head, pronator teres, and pronator quadratus were measured. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) on MVIC ranged from 0.36 to 0.99. Reliability was excellent for flexion, extension, and supination MVIC for both intra- and intersession. The ICC on sEMG ranged from 0.58 to 0.99. sEMG reliability was excellent for brachialis, brachioradialis, and pronator quadratus, and good to excellent for triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and pronator teres. This study shows that performing 3 MVICs is sufficient to obtain highly reliable maximal sEMG over 24 h for the main muscles actuating the forearm. These results confirm the potential of sEMG for muscle motor functional monitoring.

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Paul F. Greene, Christopher J. Durall and Thomas W. Kernozek

Context:

A torso-elevated side support (TESS) has previously been described for measuring endurance of the lateral trunk muscles. In some individuals, however, TESS performance may be hindered by upper extremity pain or fatigue. For this reason a novel test, the feet-elevated side-support test (FESS), was examined.

Objective:

To determine intersession reliability of a FESS and a TESS on the left and right sides using a single examiner, to evaluate the relationship between tests, and to compare reasons for test termination.

Design:

Nonexperimental prospective repeated measures.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

A convenience sample of 60 healthy participants from a university community (17 men, 43 women; age 21.1 ± 2.2 y; height 169.9 ± 9.5 cm; weight 67.1 ± 11.9 kg).

Results:

Intraclass correlation coefficient between 3 testing sessions = .87 with right FESS, .86 with left FESS, .78 with right TESS, and .91 with left TESS. Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from .59 (between left FESS and left TESS in women) to .75 (between left FESS and left TESS in men). Upper extremity pain or fatigue was the reason given for test termination in 42.5% of participants during the TESS and 5.0% during the FESS (P = .000, Fisher exact test).

Conclusions:

FESS and TESS had comparable intersession reliability by the same evaluator. Moderate to high correlations were found between FESS and TESS scores, suggesting that the tests assess similar qualities. Far fewer participants terminated the FESS because of upper extremity pain or fatigue. Thus, the FESS may be a suitable alternative to the previously validated TESS, particularly for individuals with upper extremity pain or weakness.

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Gavin L. Moir, Alberto Garcia and Gregory B. Dwyer

Purpose:

To investigate the intersession reliability of selected kinematic and kinetic variables during countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs).

Methods:

Thirty-five men and 35 women performed CMJs on a force platform during four testing sessions each separated by 1 wk. Kinematic variables included time in the air (TIA), take-off velocity (TOV), total vertical displacement of the center of mass (TJH). and countermovement depth, whereas kinetic variables included positive impulse, negative impulse, vertical stiffness, and rates of force development. Systematic bias was assessed by calculating the 90% confidence interval of the change in the mean between consecutive testing sessions and between the first and final testing session for each variable. Coefficients of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were also calculated.

Results:

Systematic bias was observed only for peak rate of force development during the concentric phase of the movement. For TIA, TOV, and TJH, CV values ranged from 1.7% to 6.6%, with ICC values ranging from 0.82 to 0.97. The other variables showed greater variation (CV range: 1.7% to 39.9%; ICC range: 0.04 to 0.99). Only slight gender differences were found in the reliability statistics, and the reliability of most of the variables was diminished as the time between the testing sessions was increased.

Conclusion:

Even though practitioners can expect good reliability for jump height measured from a force platform in men and women, other kinematic and kinetic variables often assessed during vertical jumps may not be reliable.

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Alexander Törpel, Tim Becker, Angelina Thiers, Dennis Hamacher and Lutz Schega

Context:The use of isokinetic dynamometers playing an important role in different settings of sports and medicine. Therefore, a high reliability of these devices is required. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the intersession reliability of the dynamometer BTE PrimusRS regarding to the isolated single-joint exercises extension/flexion of the knee and elbow for isokinetic testing. Design: Intersession reliability. Setting: Clinical settings and sports science. Participants: 16 young male students. Intervention: The testing protocol includes 5 consecutive repetitions (concentric/concentric) at a velocity of 60°/s for the exercises. Main Outcome Measures: Raw data of torque curves were used to determine the peak torque. Reliability was evaluated with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the limits of agreement (LoA), and the bias and the variability of measurements (V). Results: High ICC values (.954-.991) were found for the used exercises. However, the LoAs yielded up to over 16 Nm and the V yielded up to nearly 9 % in several testing exercises, indicating poor absolute reliability. Conclusion: The BTE PrimusRS shows good to excellent reliability. However, regarding the absolute measures of reliability, the users must decide as experts in their fields whether this reliability is sufficient for their purposes.

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Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani and Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh

studies carried out on motor and cognitive tasks for each condition was used to determine intersession reliability. However, any systematic change of the mean between test and retest scores, known as systematic bias, was calculated using a paired sample t test. The test and retest scores were measured

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Sean J. Maloney, Joanna Richards and Iain M. Fletcher

of drop jump derived stiffness measures has not been evaluated directly. Moreover, bilateral and unilateral drop jumping has not been compared across multiple testing sessions to evaluate intersession reliability. For this reason, the aim of this study was 2-fold. First, to assess and compare the

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Brent M. Kelln, Patrick O. McKeon, Lauren M. Gontkof and Jay Hertel

Context:

Hand-held dynamometry (HHD) has been shown to be a reliable, objective way to obtain strength measurements in elderly and physically impaired subjects.

Objective:

To estimate the intratester, intertester, and intersession reliability of HHD testing of lower extremity movements in young, healthy subjects.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

Sports medicine laboratory.

Participants:

Nine males and eleven females (Mean age = 26 years).

Measurements:

Strength measures of 11 right lower extremity movements were taken by 3 different testers on 2 separate days using a HHD.

Results:

Intratester ICC range was .77 to .97 with SEM range of .01 to .44 kg. Mean intertester ICC range was .65 to .87 with SEM range of .11 to 1.05 kg. Mean intersession ICC range was .62 to .92 with SEM range of .01 to .83 kg.

Conclusions:

HHD has the potential to be a reliable tool for strength measurements in healthy, strong subjects; however, there are noteworthy limitations with movements where subjects can overpower the testers.