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High-Intensity Interval Training for Improvement of Overhand Throwing Velocity

Meaghan E. Maddigan, David G. Behm, and Glen R. Belfry


High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve muscle power and endurance, as well as aerobic power.


To assess the effects of HIIT that utilizes resistive elastic bands to improve overhand throwing velocity.


Healthy female volunteers (n = 13) ranging in age from 18–29 years.


Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group or an experimental group that exercised 3 days per week for 3 weeks. Each training session involved performance of 5 sets of 20 throwing motions against elastic band resistance, which was performed by both extremities.

Main Outcome Measures:

Maximal oxygen consumption was measured during performance of a graded exercise test that utilized an upper extremity cycle ergometer. A radar gun was used to assess peak throwing velocity and the extent to which throwing velocity was sustained during performance of a 20-throw endurance test.


After completing the training, the experimental group exhibited faster peak throwing velocity (61.6 ± 6.6 km/hr to 63.2 ± 8.6 km/hr) and a reduced fatigue index (1.18 ± 0.16 to 1.01 ± 0.02). Training also resulted in a 14% improvement in maximum oxygen consumption (1.40 ± 0.46 L/min to 1.60 ± 0.49 L/ min) and longer time to fatigue (9.99 ± 1.84 min to 11.43 ± 2.29 min).


The high-intensity interval training program was effective for improvement of overhand throwing performance.

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Effects of Combined Vigorous Interval Training Program and Diet on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Physical Self-Perceptions Among Obese Adolescent Boys and Girls

Olivier Rey, Jean-Marc Vallier, Caroline Nicol, Charles-Symphorien Mercier, and Christophe Maïano


This study examined the effects of a five-week intervention combining vigorous interval training (VIT) with diet among twenty-four obese adolescents. Fourteen girls and ten boys (aged 14–15) schooled in a pediatric rehabilitation center participated.


The VIT intensity was targeted and remained above 80% of maximal heart rate (HR) and over six kilocalories per minute. Pre- and postintervention measures were body composition (BMI, weight, body fat percentage), physical self-perceptions (PSP), physical fitness (6-min walking distance and work) and its associated physiological responses (HRpeak and blood lactate concentration). A series of two-way analyses of variance or covariance controlling for weight loss were used to examine the changes.


Significant improvements were found in body composition, physical fitness and PSP (endurance, activity level, sport competence, global physical self-concept and appearance). In addition, boys presented higher levels of perceived strength and global physical self-concept than girls. Finally, there was a significant increase in perceived endurance, sport competence, and global physical self-concept in girls only.


This five-week VIT program combined with diet represents an effective means for improving body composition, physical fitness, and PSP in obese adolescents, the effects on PSP being larger among girls.

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High-Intensity Interval Training Prescription for Combat-Sport Athletes

Emerson Franchini

combat sports, athletes need to develop both aerobic and anaerobic pathways to cope with the action demands during the matches. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been reported to be able to develop the different energy systems in a time-efficient approach. 16 , 17 Indeed, the use of HIIT in

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Cardiorespiratory Responses to Constant and Varied-Load Interval Training Sessions

Fernando G. Beltrami, Elena Roos, Marco von Ow, and Christina M. Spengler

High-intensity interval training (HIIT)—comprising intervals of high-intensity workouts interspersed by a period of passive or active recovery—is recognized as the most efficient way to improve the performance and cardiorespiratory capacity of already well-trained individuals. 1 It is currently

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A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Interval Training and Sleep Hygiene for Improving Sleep in Older Adults

Aashirwad Mahajan, Satish Mahajan, and Swanand Tilekar

. Therefore, interval training consisting of short periods of high intensity interspersed with periods of low- to moderate-intensity exercise may serve as a substitute for continuous high-intensity exercise ( Løppenthin et al., 2014 ). In summary, considering the added benefits of interval training over

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The Moderating Role of Recovery Durations in High-Intensity Interval-Training Protocols

Patrick P.J.M. Schoenmakers, Florentina J. Hettinga, and Kate E. Reed

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is regarded as a highly effective training modality to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic functioning, and it is a common practice in training regimens of many athletes, particularly those involved in endurance events. 1 In HIIT, repeated periods of

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Time Spent Near V ˙ O 2 max During Different Cycling Self-Paced Interval Training Protocols

Cristiano Dall’ Agnol, Tiago Turnes, and Ricardo Dantas De Lucas

Interval training is an effective method to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic functioning, and research findings suggest that athletes should perform training at intensities near maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ). 1 Accordingly, the time spent near V ˙ O 2 max (ie, ≥90% V ˙ O 2 max

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Caffeine Does Not Alter Performance, Perceptual Responses, and Oxidative Stress After Short Sprint Interval Training

Mauro F. Bernardo, Alysson Enes, Elisangela F. Rezende, Alexandre R. Okuyama, Ragami C. Alves, Murilo de Andrade, Ana Carolina G. Macedo, Marcelo Paes de Barros, Darren G. Candow, Scott C. Forbes, and Tácito P. Souza-Junior

that CAF supplementation can enhance some aspects of interval training exercise ( Lee et al., 2012 ; Paton et al., 2015 ; Schneiker et al., 2006 ; Woolf et al., 2008 ). For example, some lines of research demonstrate that CAF supplementation improved sprint performance, mainly by enhancing peak and

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Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of a Teacher-Facilitated High-Intensity Interval Training Intervention for Older Adolescents

Angus A. Leahy, Narelle Eather, Jordan J. Smith, Charles H. Hillman, Philip J. Morgan, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Michael Nilsson, Sarah A. Costigan, Michael Noetel, and David R. Lubans

youth in physical activity of sufficient volume and intensity to maintain and improve CRF. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as a relatively novel and time-efficient strategy for improving CRF in adolescents. HIIT involves short bursts of high-intensity activity (ie, ≥85% heart rate

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Enhanced External Counterpulsation and Short-Term Recovery From High-Intensity Interval Training

Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia, and Pedro de la Villa

-controlled, counterbalanced design was used to determine if EECP could enhance recovery after a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session, where each subject acted as his or her own control. Subjects were informed that they were participating in a study comparing the effects of 2 different EECP protocols: one that