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Maïté Verloigne, Nicola D. Ridgers, Mai Chinapaw, Teatske Altenburg, Elling Bere, Sveinung Berntsen, Greet Cardon, Johannes Brug, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Wendy Van Lippevelde and Lea Maes

There are currently no studies available reporting intervention effects on breaking up children’s sedentary time. This study examined the UP4FUN intervention effect on objectively measured number of breaks in sedentary time, number of sedentary bouts (> 10 mins) and total and average amount of time spent in those sedentary bouts among 10- to 12-year-old Belgian children. The total sample included 354 children (mean age: 10.9 ± 0.7 years; 59% girls) with valid ActiGraph accelerometer data at pre- and posttest. Only few and small intervention effects were found, namely on total time spent in sedentary bouts immediately after school hours (4-6PM; β = -3.51mins) and on average time spent in sedentary bouts before school hours (6-8.30AM; β = -4.83mins) and immediately after school hours in favor of children from intervention schools (β = -2.71mins). Unexpectedly, girls from intervention schools decreased the number of breaks during school hours (8.30AM-4PM; β = -23.45breaks) and increased the number of sedentary bouts on a weekend day (β = +0.90bouts), whereas girls in control schools showed an increase in number of breaks and a decrease in number of bouts. In conclusion, UP4FUN did not have a consistent or substantial effect on breaking up children’s sedentary time and these data suggest that more intensive and longer lasting interventions are needed.

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Guohua Zheng, Xin Zheng, Junzhe Li, Tingjin Duan, Kun Ling, Jing Tao and Lidian Chen

expectations of the intervention effect. This awareness of intervention assignment might have introduced some bias into the results. In this prospective trial, we recruited only older community adults with risk factors for ischemic stroke, and thus, the results may not be applicable to the general population

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Sarah E. Roth, Monique Gill, Alec M. Chan-Golston, Lindsay N. Rice, Catherine M. Crespi, Deborah Koniak-Griffin and Michael L. Prelip

predicting the 2 PA outcomes are shown in Table  2 . Although there was no detectable intervention effect on daily PA, there was a negative intervention effect detected for weekly muscle strengthening. Being a girl, reporting high perceived PA barriers, and being obese were found to be negatively associated

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Laura Q. Rogers, Stephen Markwell, Patricia Hopkins-Price, Sandy Vicari, Kerry S. Courneya, Karen Hoelzer and Steven Verhulst

To better understand mechanisms of physical activity (PA) behavior change in breast cancer survivors, we examined mediation of a successful PA behavior change intervention by social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs. Our exploratory study randomized 41 breast cancer survivors to receive the 3-month intervention (INT) or usual care (UC). We used the Freedman and Schatzkin approach to examine mediation of intervention effect on PA 3 months postintervention by changes in SCT constructs from baseline to immediately postintervention. Compared with UC, the INT group reported lower barriers interference (mean difference = −7.8, 95% CI [−15.1, −0.4], d = −0.67, p = .04) and greater PA enjoyment (mean difference = 0.7, 95% CI [0, 1.5], d = 0.61, p = .06). Barriers interference mediated 39% (p = .004) of the intervention effect on PA 3 months postintervention. PA enjoyment was not a significant mediator. Reducing barriers to PA partially explained our intervention effect.

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Megan A. Kirk and Ryan E. Rhodes

Preschoolers with developmental delay (DD) are at risk for poor fundamental movement skills (FMS), but a paucity of early FMS interventions exist. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise the existing interventions to establish direction for future trials targeting preschoolers with DD. A total of 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. Major findings were summarized based on common subtopics of overall intervention effect, locomotor skill outcomes, object-control outcomes, and gender differences. Trials ranged from 8 to 24 weeks and offered 540–1700 min of instruction. The majority of trials (n = 9) significantly improved FMS of preschoolers with DD, with a large intervention effect (η2 = 0.57–0.85). This review supports the utility of interventions to improve FMS of preschoolers with DD. Future researchers are encouraged to include more robust designs, a theoretical framework, and involvement of parents and teachers in the delivery of the intervention.

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Jan Seghers, Ann-Sophie Van Hoecke, Astrid Schotte, Joke Opdenacker and Filip Boen

Background:

Self-efficacy has been found to be an important precondition for behavioral change in sedentary people. The current study examined the effectiveness and added value of including a 15-minute selfefficacy coaching at the start of a 12-week lifestyle physical activity (PA) program.

Methods:

Participants were randomly assigned to a standard-intervention group (without additional self-efficacy coaching, N = 116) or extra-intervention group (with additional self-efficacy coaching, N = 111). Body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular fitness, self-reported PA, and self-efficacy beliefs were assessed at baseline and immediately after the intervention period. Perceived adherence to the PA program was assessed postintervention.

Results:

At posttest, a significant increase in cardiovascular fitness and decrease in BMI were found in both groups. Significant intervention effects emerged on PA behavior, self-efficacy, and program adherence, in favor of the extra-intervention group. Self-efficacy mediated the intervention effect on program adherence whereas no evidence was found for its role as mediator of PA change.

Conclusions:

Adding a 15-minute self-efficacy coaching at the start of a lifestyle PA program is a promising strategy to enhance the intervention effects on PA behavior, self-efficacy beliefs, and program adherence. However, the role of self-efficacy as mediator of the intervention effect on in PA was not fully supported.

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Adam B. Lloyd, David R. Lubans, Ronald C. Plotnikoff and Philip J. Morgan

Background:

This study examined potential parenting-related mediators of children’s physical activity and dietary behavior change in the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids (HDHK) community program.

Methods:

A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 45 overweight/obese (mean [SD] age = 39.8 [5.4] years; BMI = 32.4 [3.8]) fathers and their children (n = 77; 58% boys; mean [SD] age = 7.7 [2.5] years). Families were randomized to either the HDHK program or wait-list control group. The program involved 7 sessions. Fathers and their children were assessed at baseline and at 14 weeks for physical activity (pedometery) and core food intake (Questionnaire). Fathers’ lifestyle-related parenting practices included; self-efficacy, beliefs, modeling, logistic support, rules, cophysical activity, shared mealtime frequency and intentions.

Results:

Significant intervention effects were found for cophysical activity and modeling physical activity. Cophysical activity mediated children’s physical activity in the intervention (‘mediated effect,’ AB = 653, 95% CI = 4–2050) and was responsible for 59.5% of the intervention effect. Fathers’ beliefs mediated children’s percent energy from core foods (AB = 1.51, 95% CI = 0.05–5.55) and accounted for 72.9% of the intervention effect.

Conclusions:

Participation in the HDHK program positively impacted on fathers’ cophysical activity with their child and beliefs about healthy eating which mediated changes in children’s diet and physical activity behaviors.

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Maria L. Zonderland, Wietze B.M. Erich, Wouter Kortlandt and D. Willem Erkelens

A 3-year controlled intervention was used to study the influence of physical activity on the plasma lipid and apoprotein profile of 10-year-old Dutch schoolchildren. Twice-a-year measurements were taken of height, weight, body composition (skinfolds), pubertal development (Tanner stages), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apoproteins A-I and B (immunoturbidimetry), and participation in physical activities. The effect of the intervention was analyzed with a MANOVA. The intervention did not affect the level of the lipids and apoproteins of the boys. In the girls, the intervention led to a smaller increase of TG and a larger decrease of apoprotein A-I. There may be two explanations for the limited intervention effect. First, it may be due to the healthy baseline plasma lipid and apoprotein profile, which leaves little room for improvement. Second, the exercise intensity during the physical education classes may have been too low to bring about the desired effect.

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Sean Müller, Yasmin Gurisik, Mark Hecimovich, Allen G. Harbaugh and Ann-Maree Vallence

Training studies in a variety of domains focus on between-group comparisons. This study investigated individual differences in learning based upon visual anticipation training using field hockey goalkeeping as the exemplar motor skill. In a within-subject design, four state-league level field hockey goalkeepers were tested before and after visual anticipatory training in an in-situ test that required them to save goals from a drag flick. Response initiation time and response accuracy were measured. Participants were tested at baseline, completed a control phase of sport-specific practice, were retested, then given an intervention phase of temporal occlusion training plus sport-specific practice, and retested. Results indicated that two goalkeepers’ response initiation times were earlier after the intervention. Effect sizes indicated that the two goalkeepers improved response accuracy after the intervention. Another goalkeeper’s response initiation time was later after the intervention, but this did not impede response accuracy of goals saved. The mechanism of individual learning appeared to be modulation of response timing to save goals. Anticipation training can improve in-situ visual-perceptual motor skill performance in an individualized and nonlinear fashion. Further research is needed to better understand how each individual learns the visual-perceptual motor skills of high time-stress tasks in the sport domain.

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Tracey Devonport, Andrew Lane and Christopher L. Fullerton

Evidence from sequential-task studies demonstrate that if the first task requires self-control, then performance on the second task is compromised (Hagger, Wood, Stiff, & Chatzisarantis, 2010). In a novel extension of previous sequential-task research, the first self-control task in the current study was a sport psychology intervention, paradoxically proposed to be associated with improved performance. Eighteen participants (9 males, 9 females; mean age = 21.6 years, SD = 1.6), none of whom had previously performed the experimental task or motor imagery, were randomly assigned to an imagery condition or a control condition. After the collection of pretest data, participants completed the same 5-week physical training program designed to enhance swimming tumble-turn performance. Results indicated that performance improved significantly among participants from both conditions with no significant intervention effect. Hence, in contrast to expected findings from application of the imagery literature, there was no additive effect after an intervention. We suggest practitioners should be cognisant of the potential effects of sequential tasks, and future research is needed to investigate this line of research.