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Active Commuting by Bicycle: Results of an Educational Intervention Study

Ilca M.S. Diniz, Maria de Fátima S. Duarte, Karen G. Peres, Elusa S.A. de Oliveira, and Angélia Berndt


The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on active commuting by bicycle.


An intervention study with workers from a metallurgical industry in Santa Catarina state, Brazil was carried out in 2011. A total of 464 individuals were placed in the intervention group (IG) and 468 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of strategies based on the transtheoretical model and stages of behavior change. The intervention group took part in activities for 6 months, including 23 meetings. The statistical analysis included intergroup comparison (IG × CG) at baseline and after the intervention. Intragroup analysis was performed 6 months after the intervention. Student’s t-test, chi-square, and McNemar tests were used to analyze the data.


Of the original total, 876 individuals (94%) participated in the study. The proportion of participants that used bicycles to commute to work (IG) increased significantly from baseline (45.3%) to the final interventional period (47.5%). No difference was found between the CG and the IG group after the interventional period.


We suggest taking these findings into consideration in further studies to understand better the role of educational intervention on active commuting by bicycle.

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Effects of Physical Exercise Training on Cerebral Blood Flow Measurements: A Systematic Review of Human Intervention Studies

Jordi P.D. Kleinloog, Kevin M.R. Nijssen, Ronald P. Mensink, and Peter J. Joris

). However, effects of physical exercise training on CBF measurements have not been systematically reviewed so far. Furthermore, longer term human intervention studies already showed that physical exercise training improves cognitive performance ( Gates et al., 2013 ; Northey et al., 2017 ) potentially via

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Do Intervention Studies to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Children and Adolescents Take Sex/Gender Into Account? A Systematic Review

Annegret Schlund, Anne K. Reimers, Jens Bucksch, Catherina Brindley, Carolin Schulze, Lorri Puil, Stephanie E. Coen, Susan P. Phillips, Guido Knapp, and Yolanda Demetriou

intervention studies reported that baseline characteristics differed between men and women and different interventions had different effects on men and woman. Some of the studies had a bigger impact on women and some on men. 14 It was suggested that features, such as intervention content, setting as well as

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The Moderated Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Exercise Among Older Adults in an Online Bone Health Intervention Study: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model

Shijun Zhu, Eun-Shim Nahm, Barbara Resnick, Erika Friedmann, Clayton Brown, Jumin Park, Jooyoung Cheon, and DoHwan Park

team has implemented a Bone Power Intervention to improve older adults’ participation in bone-health behaviors such as exercise and calcium intake ( Nahm et al., 2015a , 2015b ). The intervention study was approved by the institutional review boards at the University of Maryland, Baltimore, and the U

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A Physical Activity Program for Swedish Physically Inactive Female High School Students: A Controlled Intervention Study

Yvonne Kahlin, Suzanne Werner, and Marie Alricsson


Physical activity and sport participation often decline during adolescence.


To investigate if physical exercise during 6 months could lead to a positive behavior of physical activity, improve physical fitness and self-related health in physically inactive female high school students.


A prospective cluster-randomized controlled intervention study included 104 physically inactive female high school students, 60 in an intervention group and 44 controls. At baseline there were no group differences regarding self-related health. The intervention group exercised at least once per week. A questionnaire and physical fitness tests were used for evaluation, at baseline and 6 months later.


The intervention group improved their self-related health compared with the controls (P = .012). When divided into a regular (n = 27) and an irregular training group (n = 33) the regular training group improved their self-related health compared with the controls, while the irregular training group did not differ from the other groups. Maximal oxygen consumption was improved in the intervention group compared with the controls (P < .001). No group differences were found in muscle strength and endurance.


Physical exercise at least once per week during 6 months improved physical fitness (maximal oxygen consumption) and self-related health in physically inactive female high school students.

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Cost-Effectiveness of the ENJOY Seniors Exercise Park for Older People: A Pre–Post Intervention Study

Natasha K. Brusco, Keith D. Hill, Terry Haines, Jeremy Dunn, Maya G. Panisset, Briony Dow, Frances Batchelor, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Gustavo Duque, and Pazit Levinger

the robustness of the results. Key limitations included the small sample size (n = 50) and the relatively short 6-month follow-up period; however, these early economic evaluations alongside intervention studies are important and inform data collection in future fully powered economic evaluations. 24

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A Transformational Coaching Workshop for Changing Youth Sport Coaches’ Behaviors: A Pilot Intervention Study

Sarah Lawrason, Jennifer Turnnidge, Luc J. Martin, and Jean Côté

several previous TFL-intervention studies (e.g.,  Barling et al., 1996 ; Vella et al., 2013 ), there is preliminary evidence that some TFL behaviors (i.e., the 4 Is) can be enhanced through training. Furthermore, this research provides support for the full-range leadership model as a framework for

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A Physical Activity Intervention Program in School is Also Accompanied by Higher Leisure-Time Physical Activity: A Prospective Controlled 3-Year Study in 194 Prepubertal Children

Felix Cronholm, Björn E. Rosengren, Caroline Karlsson, and Magnus K. Karlsson


The activity-stat theory infers that total physical activity (PA) in children is constant, independent of environmental interventions.


We conducted a 3-year prospective population-based controlled PA intervention study including, at baseline, 7- to 9-year-old children (66 boys, 40 girls in the intervention and 50 boys, 38 girls in the control group). PA was increased in the intervention group from 60 to 200 minutes/week, while the controls maintained 60 minutes/week. We registered weekly duration of total PA and leisure-time PA and daily duration of sedentary activities, through questionnaires at baseline and 2 and 3 years after baseline.


Between intervention and control groups PA was similar before intervention start. After intervention start, total PA in both genders was increased during the entire period (P-values adjusted for age and Tanner stage at follow-up between 0.001 and 0.002). Duration of sedentary activities was unchanged with no group differences. Children in the intervention group changed their behavior so that they also achieved more leisure-time PA.


A 3-year school-based PA intervention program in prepubertal children increases the duration of total PA without increasing the duration of sedentary activities, and the program seems to initiate more PA during leisure-time. Our results refute the activity-stat theory.

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Youth and Young Adult Physical Activity and Body Composition of Young Adult Women: Findings from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children

Melissa Hodge, Mary Hovinga, Kelley Gabriel, Linda Snetselaar, John Shepherd, Linda Van Horn, Victor Stevens, Brian Egleston, Alan Robson, Seungyoun Jung, and Joanne Dorgan

This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

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Aerobic Training Performed at Ventilatory Threshold Improves Psychological Outcomes in Adolescents With Obesity

Yara Fidelix, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado, Leonardo S. Fortes, James O. Hill, Ann E. Caldwell, João P. Botero, and Wagner L. do Prado

.71 (9.49) 37.43 (11.37)* .92 <.01 .21  LIG 43.86 (8.34) 40.92 (11.12)* Abbreviations: G, group; HIG, high-intensity group; LIG, low-intensity group; T, time. * P  < .05 (vs baseline). Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is one of very few randomized exercise intervention studies investigating