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Lauren Ashleigh Waters, Benedicte Galichet, Neville Owen and Elizabeth Eakin

Background:

Taking a representative snapshot of physical activity intervention trial findings published between 1996 and 2006, we empirically evaluated participant characteristics, response and retention rates, and their associations with intervention settings.

Methods:

A structured database search identified 5 representative health behavior journals, from which 32 research reports of physical activity intervention trials were reviewed. Interventions settings were categorized as workplace, healthcare, home- or community-based. Information on participant and intervention characteristics was extracted and reviewed.

Results:

The majority of participants were Caucasian (86%), women (66%), healthy but sedentary (63%), and middle-aged (mean age = 51 years). Intervention response rates ranged from 20% to 89%, with the greatest response rate for healthcare and home-based interventions. Compared with nonparticipants, study participants tended to be women, Caucasian, tertiary-educated, and middle-class. Participants in workplace interventions were younger, more educated, and healthier; in community-based interventions, participants were older and more ethnically diverse. Reporting on education and income was inconsistent. The mean retention rate was 78%, with minimal differences between intervention settings.

Conclusions:

These results emphasize the need for physical activity interventions to target men, socioeconomically disadvantaged, and ethnic minority populations. Consistent reporting of response rate and retention may enhance the understanding of which intervention settings best recruit and retain large, representative samples.

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Erik J. Groessl, Robert M. Kaplan, Steven N. Blair, W. Jack Rejeski, Jeffrey A. Katula, Abby C. King, Roger A. Fielding, Nancy W. Glynn and Marco Pahor

We examined the costs of a physical activity (PA) and an educational comparison intervention. 424 older adults at risk for mobility disability were randomly assigned to either condition. The PA program consisted of center-based exercise sessions 3× weekly for 8 weeks, 2× weekly for weeks 9 to 24 and weekly behavioral counseling for 10 weeks. Optional sessions were offered during maintenance weeks (25−52). The comparison intervention consisted of weekly education meetings for 24 weeks, and then monthly for 6 months. Cost analyses were conducted from the “payer’s” perspective, with a 1-year time horizon. Intervention costs were estimated by tracking personnel activities and materials used for each intervention and multiplying by national unit cost averages. The average cost/participant was $1134 and $175 for the PA and the comparison interventions, respectively. A preliminary cost/effectiveness analysis gauged the cost/disability avoided to be $28,206. Costs for this PA program for older adults are comparable to those of other PA interventions. The results are preliminary and a longer study is required to fully assess the costs and health benefits of these interventions.

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Whitney B. Curry, Symeon Dagkas and Marcia Wilson

Background:

The Newman’s Every Child a Sports Person (NECaSP) intervention aspires to increase sport and physical activity (PA) participation among young people in the United Kingdom. The aims of this article are to report on a summative process evaluation of the NECaSP and make recommendations for future interventions.

Methods:

Seventeen schools provided data from students aged 11 to 13 years (n = 1226), parents (n = 192), and teachers (n = 14) via direct observation and questionnaires. Means, SDs, and percentages were calculated for sociodemographic data. Qualitative data were analyzed via directed content analysis and main themes identified.

Results:

Findings indicate further administrative, educational, and financial support will help facilitate the success of the program in improving PA outcomes for young people and of other similar intervention programs globally. Data highlighted the need to engage parents to increase the likelihood of intervention success.

Conclusions:

One main strength of this study is the mixed-methods nature of the process evaluation. It is recommended that future school-based interventions that bridge sports clubs and formal curriculum provision should consider a broader approach to the delivery of programs throughout the academic year, school week, and school day. Finally, changes in the school curriculum can be successful once all parties are involved (community, school, families).

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Jamie B. Barker, Andrew L. Evans, Pete Coffee, Matt J. Slater and Paul J. McCarthy

In a one group pretest-posttest design, 15 elite academy cricketers were exposed to two personal-disclosure mutual-sharing (PDMS) sessions during a preseason tour. Within PDMS1, athletes disclosed (via prepared speeches) relationship-oriented information and within PDMS2, mastery oriented information. Social identity, social identity content, and collective efficacy were measured at baseline (1 week before the tour), post-PDMS1, midpoint, and post-PDMS2, while social validation was also obtained after each intervention session. Quantitative data revealed significant increases in social identity and friendships identity content at post-PDMS1, and results identity content and collective efficacy at post-PDMS2. Qualitative social validation data highlighted the thoughts and feelings of the athletes before their speeches and supported the effectiveness of the PDMS sessions. In sum, the data suggest practitioners can develop team outcomes (e.g., a focus on results) through developing specific aspects of teams’ identities. Study limitations, practitioner guidelines, and areas for future research are discussed.

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Francini Vilela Novais, Eduardo J. Simoes, Chester Schmaltz and Luiz R. Ramos

short term. Given the scarcity of studies in Brazil evaluating physical activity interventions in PHC, this study aimed to compare the effectiveness of (1) standardized counseling on physical activity performed by the physician, (2) individualized counseling with referral to places georeferenced for

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Andrew F. Clark, Joannah Campbell, Patricia Tucker, Piotr Wilk and Jason A. Gilliland

-documented health benefits of doing so. 5 These low rates of PA are similar to rates found throughout the world, with only 1 of 5 children aged 13–15 years getting the recommended levels of PA. 6 , 7 Some community-based interventions have shown a limited capacity to change PA behavior, but most are still

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Nkechi Offor, Peace Ossom Williamson and Priscila Caçola

Purpose:

The purpose of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis is to identify the types of interventions in physical therapy contexts that have been explored in children with developmental coordination disorder, the most common variables being addressed, and whether these interventions are effective.

Method:

This systematic search of MEDLINE, PEDro, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library identified interventions in physical therapy contexts for children and adolescents with DCD, and studies were screened using these criteria and assessed using the PEDro and NIH quality assessment scales. AMSTAR was used to evaluate systematic reviews and a meta-analysis was conducted.

Results:

From the articles reviewed, 29 articles of moderate to good quality were included in the qualitative analysis. Task-oriented approaches as well as motor skill training–based interventions have shown beneficial effects in improving motor function in children with DCD. Data from 14 articles was extracted for inclusion in the meta-analysis, providing support for the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions against inaction.

Conclusion:

Researchers recommend the use of task-oriented and traditional physical therapy interventions for children with DCD. In addition, interventions in physical therapy contexts need clear goals and outcome measures for individual children.

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Kara L. Gavin, Julian Wolfson, Mark Pereira, Nancy Sherwood and Jennifer A. Linde

During the maintenance phase following weight loss programs, when intervention support for weight loss behaviors taper off, individuals are at higher risk for weight gain. Predicting and promoting successful maintenance is challenging and few randomized controlled trials have been conducted to

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Laura J. McGowan, Rachael Powell and David P. French

levels of physical activity among cohorts of older adults, reducing sedentary behavior remains an important target for health-related behavior change. Furthermore, interventions promoting reductions in sedentary behavior are likely to be more acceptable to older adults than interventions to promote

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James E. Peterman, Kalee L. Morris, Rodger Kram and William C. Byrnes

did not instruct participants to break up their sitting. Our purpose was to implement a cycling intervention in a sedentary workplace to increase physical activity and break up prolonged sedentary sitting time. We hypothesized that breaking up sedentary sitting with light-intensity cycling would