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Lauren Ashleigh Waters, Benedicte Galichet, Neville Owen, and Elizabeth Eakin

Background:

Taking a representative snapshot of physical activity intervention trial findings published between 1996 and 2006, we empirically evaluated participant characteristics, response and retention rates, and their associations with intervention settings.

Methods:

A structured database search identified 5 representative health behavior journals, from which 32 research reports of physical activity intervention trials were reviewed. Interventions settings were categorized as workplace, healthcare, home- or community-based. Information on participant and intervention characteristics was extracted and reviewed.

Results:

The majority of participants were Caucasian (86%), women (66%), healthy but sedentary (63%), and middle-aged (mean age = 51 years). Intervention response rates ranged from 20% to 89%, with the greatest response rate for healthcare and home-based interventions. Compared with nonparticipants, study participants tended to be women, Caucasian, tertiary-educated, and middle-class. Participants in workplace interventions were younger, more educated, and healthier; in community-based interventions, participants were older and more ethnically diverse. Reporting on education and income was inconsistent. The mean retention rate was 78%, with minimal differences between intervention settings.

Conclusions:

These results emphasize the need for physical activity interventions to target men, socioeconomically disadvantaged, and ethnic minority populations. Consistent reporting of response rate and retention may enhance the understanding of which intervention settings best recruit and retain large, representative samples.

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Erik J. Groessl, Robert M. Kaplan, Steven N. Blair, W. Jack Rejeski, Jeffrey A. Katula, Abby C. King, Roger A. Fielding, Nancy W. Glynn, and Marco Pahor

We examined the costs of a physical activity (PA) and an educational comparison intervention. 424 older adults at risk for mobility disability were randomly assigned to either condition. The PA program consisted of center-based exercise sessions 3× weekly for 8 weeks, 2× weekly for weeks 9 to 24 and weekly behavioral counseling for 10 weeks. Optional sessions were offered during maintenance weeks (25−52). The comparison intervention consisted of weekly education meetings for 24 weeks, and then monthly for 6 months. Cost analyses were conducted from the “payer’s” perspective, with a 1-year time horizon. Intervention costs were estimated by tracking personnel activities and materials used for each intervention and multiplying by national unit cost averages. The average cost/participant was $1134 and $175 for the PA and the comparison interventions, respectively. A preliminary cost/effectiveness analysis gauged the cost/disability avoided to be $28,206. Costs for this PA program for older adults are comparable to those of other PA interventions. The results are preliminary and a longer study is required to fully assess the costs and health benefits of these interventions.

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Whitney B. Curry, Symeon Dagkas, and Marcia Wilson

Background:

The Newman’s Every Child a Sports Person (NECaSP) intervention aspires to increase sport and physical activity (PA) participation among young people in the United Kingdom. The aims of this article are to report on a summative process evaluation of the NECaSP and make recommendations for future interventions.

Methods:

Seventeen schools provided data from students aged 11 to 13 years (n = 1226), parents (n = 192), and teachers (n = 14) via direct observation and questionnaires. Means, SDs, and percentages were calculated for sociodemographic data. Qualitative data were analyzed via directed content analysis and main themes identified.

Results:

Findings indicate further administrative, educational, and financial support will help facilitate the success of the program in improving PA outcomes for young people and of other similar intervention programs globally. Data highlighted the need to engage parents to increase the likelihood of intervention success.

Conclusions:

One main strength of this study is the mixed-methods nature of the process evaluation. It is recommended that future school-based interventions that bridge sports clubs and formal curriculum provision should consider a broader approach to the delivery of programs throughout the academic year, school week, and school day. Finally, changes in the school curriculum can be successful once all parties are involved (community, school, families).

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Francini Vilela Novais, Eduardo J. Simoes, Chester Schmaltz, and Luiz R. Ramos

short term. Given the scarcity of studies in Brazil evaluating physical activity interventions in PHC, this study aimed to compare the effectiveness of (1) standardized counseling on physical activity performed by the physician, (2) individualized counseling with referral to places georeferenced for

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Rachel R. Kleis, Matt C. Hoch, Rachel Hogg-Graham, and Johanna M. Hoch

mortality, improved quality of life, and increased physical and cognitive function. 1 , 2 Due to known risks associated with physical inactivity, as well as the known benefits of PA, numerous interventions have been designed to improve PA across the lifespan. 3 – 5 These interventions are often grounded

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Norah L. Johnson, Abir K. Bekhet, Rachel Sawdy, Emily Zint, June Wang, Sylvia Pena, Hannah Zurcher, and Nina Enea

disorder is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that appears before age 3 years. 2 Although there is no cure for ASD, symptoms of ASD, such as challenging behaviors, can be improved via parent and child interventions. 2 , 17 Child ASD symptoms include impulsiveness, hyperactivity, and injuries to self

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Andrew F. Clark, Joannah Campbell, Patricia Tucker, Piotr Wilk, and Jason A. Gilliland

-documented health benefits of doing so. 5 These low rates of PA are similar to rates found throughout the world, with only 1 of 5 children aged 13–15 years getting the recommended levels of PA. 6 , 7 Some community-based interventions have shown a limited capacity to change PA behavior, but most are still

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Emily H. Gabriel, Nicole C. Sibert, and Cameron J. Powden

risk of osteoarthritis, and decreased physical activity levels. 3 Due to the prevalence of acute lateral ankle sprains in combination with the short- and long-term consequences, it is imperative that innovative interventions are developed to break the cycle of disability. A major goal following any

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Jamie B. Barker, Andrew L. Evans, Pete Coffee, Matt J. Slater, and Paul J. McCarthy

In a one group pretest-posttest design, 15 elite academy cricketers were exposed to two personal-disclosure mutual-sharing (PDMS) sessions during a preseason tour. Within PDMS1, athletes disclosed (via prepared speeches) relationship-oriented information and within PDMS2, mastery oriented information. Social identity, social identity content, and collective efficacy were measured at baseline (1 week before the tour), post-PDMS1, midpoint, and post-PDMS2, while social validation was also obtained after each intervention session. Quantitative data revealed significant increases in social identity and friendships identity content at post-PDMS1, and results identity content and collective efficacy at post-PDMS2. Qualitative social validation data highlighted the thoughts and feelings of the athletes before their speeches and supported the effectiveness of the PDMS sessions. In sum, the data suggest practitioners can develop team outcomes (e.g., a focus on results) through developing specific aspects of teams’ identities. Study limitations, practitioner guidelines, and areas for future research are discussed.

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Kara L. Gavin, Julian Wolfson, Mark Pereira, Nancy Sherwood, and Jennifer A. Linde

During the maintenance phase following weight loss programs, when intervention support for weight loss behaviors taper off, individuals are at higher risk for weight gain. Predicting and promoting successful maintenance is challenging and few randomized controlled trials have been conducted to