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Petra V. Kolić, David T. Sims, Kirsty Hicks, Laura Thomas, and Christopher I. Morse

of the study findings ( O’Cathain, 2010 ). A questionnaire was developed to examine the frequency and extent of menstrual events as well as the self-reported physical activity throughout the menstrual cycle. A semistructured interview explored in-depth women’s individual experiences and the meanings

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Alexander T. Latinjak, Eduardo Morelló-Tomás, and Lucia Figal-Gómez

use various methods to examine psychological realities, including observations, questionnaires, and interviews, the latter being the focus of this article. In the context of the present study, we use the term psychological reality to denote people’s individually and collectively constructed

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Liam D. Harper and Robert McCunn

Recent work has espoused the idea that in applied sporting environments, “fast”-working practitioners should work together with “slow”-working researchers. However, due to economical and logistical constraints, such a coupling may not always be practical. Therefore, alternative means of combining research and applied practice are needed. A particular methodology that has been used in recent years is qualitative research. Examples of qualitative methods include online surveys, 1-on-1 interviews, and focus groups. This article discusses the merits of using qualitative methods to combine applied practice and research in sport science. This includes a discussion of recent examples of the use of such methods in published journal articles, a critique of the approaches employed, and future directions and recommendations. The authors encourage both practitioners and researchers to use and engage with qualitative research with the ultimate goal of benefiting athlete health and sporting performance.

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Rory Mack, Jeff Breckon, Joanne Butt, and Ian Maynard

maximize the working alliance and is starting to receive attention in applied sport psychology ( Mack et al., 2017 ; Mack et al., 2019 ; Turner et al., 2020 ; Wood et al., 2020 ), is motivational interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2013 ). The MI is a counseling therapy, which was founded on the

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Ben D. Kern, Suzan F. Ayers, Chad M. Killian, and Amelia Mays Woods

those witnessed in PETE, faculty may become more focused on student retention and commit their professional time to that end ( Barbera et al., 2017 ). The chapter reports the results of interviews with the purpose of understanding PETE program coordinators’ perceptions of their role in the process of

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Ben D. Kern, K. Andrew R. Richards, Suzan F. Ayers, and Chad M. Killian

they perceive as individual barriers to recruiting? and (3) What strategies do PETE coordinators perceive to be successful in recruiting new students into their programs? Methods The data reported in this study were generated from in-depth interviews with 36 PETE coordinators (24 females and 12 males

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James Strode, Melissa Davies, and Heather J. Lawrence

but seem to be the result of interviews with student-athletes. The interviews were conducted by the assistant athletic director for compliance during finals week in May last year. Given the lack of detail for these exit interviews, you decide to review exit data for all State U athletic teams. The

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Cecilia Winberg, Gunilla Carlsson, Christina Brogårdh, and Jan Lexell

Maintaining regular physical activity (PA) can be challenging for persons with late effects of polio. This qualitative study of ambulatory persons with late effects of polio explored their perceptions of PA, as well as facilitators of and barriers to PA. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 persons and analyzed with content analysis using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. The participants described positive perceptions of PA and its health benefits. PA was used to prevent further decline in functioning, and the type and frequency of activities had changed over time. Past experiences and personal characteristics impacted PA. Support from close relatives, knowledgeable health care professionals, mobility devices, and accessible environments facilitated PA, whereas impairments, inaccessible environments, and cold weather were the main barriers. To perform PA regularly, persons with late effects of polio may benefit from individualized advice based on their disability and personal and environmental factors.

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Delfien Van Dyck, Lieze Mertens, Greet Cardon, Katrien De Cocker, and Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij

This study aimed to obtain qualitative information about physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB)and their determinants, and about recently retired adults’ needs regarding PA interventions. Four focus group interviews were organized. The most commonly reported PA types were walking, cycling, swimming and fitness. The most commonly reported SB were reading, TV viewing, and computer use. Car use was limited. Most adults agreed their habits had changed during retirement. The most striking PA determinant was the feeling of being a ‘forgotten group’ and therefore having too few tailored PA initiatives available. Furthermore, participants were not aware of the negative health effects of SB and not motivated to decrease their SB. Concerning new PA interventions, very diverse ideas were put forward, reflecting the diversity of the target group. It seems that a dynamic intervention in which participants can choose which PA type they want to increase is preferable for recently retired adults.

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Alicia M. Kissinger-Knox, Nicole J. Norheim, Denise S. Vagt, Kevin P. Mulligan, and Frank M. Webbe

Key Points ▸ Male athletes reported significantly more symptoms in a face-to-face interview using the SCAT3 items compared to the computerized self-report using the ImPACT symptom scale. ▸ Females reported more symptoms and a greater severity of symptoms than did males. ▸ Examiner sex did not