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Kimberley J. Bartholomew, Nikos Ntoumanis, and Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani

This article outlines the development and initial validation of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale (CCBS), a multidimensional self-report measure designed to assess sports coaches’ controlling interpersonal style from the perspective of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002). Study 1 generated a pool of items, based on past literature and feedback from coaches, athletes, and academic experts. The factorial structure of the questionnaire was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across Studies 2 and 3. The final CCBS model in Study 3 comprised 4 factors (controlling use of rewards, conditional regard, intimidation, and excessive personal control) and was cross-validated using a third independent sample in Study 4. The scale demonstrated good content and factorial validity, as well as internal consistency and invariance across gender and sport type. Suggestions for its use in research pertaining to the darker side of coaching and sport participation are discussed.

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Karen S. Meaney and Sonya L. Armstrong

Bullying is a critical issue in society that adversely affects individuals, organizations, and workplaces ( Namie, 2003 ). Bullies engage in deliberate and long-term acts of aggression, harassment, intimidation, and humiliation directed at vulnerable individuals. Victims of bullying may experience

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Samuele Joseph and Duncan Cramer

The present study examined elite cricket batsmen’s experiences of sledging to establish its frequency, effects, and the coping strategies used by players. Sledging in cricket is the practice whereby players seek to gain an advantage by insulting or verbally intimidating the opposing batter. Semistructured interviews were conducted on 10 elite batsmen. Interviews were transcribed and content analysis was conducted to elucidate themes. Several similar factors were reported for both the frequency of sledging and its effectiveness, the most influential being the period of innings, state of the game, and in-game pressure. The majority of the reported effects of sledging were negative, most notably, an altered perception of self, an altered state of mind, decreased batting ability, and over arousal. Numerous associated coping strategies were mentioned, the most frequently used being variations of self-talk. Other noteworthy coping strategies included routines, external support, showing frustration, avoidance coping, and relaxation techniques. Overall, players perceived that sledging had a substantial effect on a batter and their level of performance.

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Sofie Morbée, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Nathalie Aelterman, and Leen Haerens

.g.,  Barcza-Renner et al., 2016 ). In a differentiated approach, the predictive role of four sets of pressure-exerting practices is investigated ( Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2010 ): humiliating and belittling athletes (i.e., intimidation); pushing athletes to engage, persevere, and perform

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Andre Koka and Heino Sildala

relationships with students’ maladaptive outcomes. Specifically, Hein and co-workers found that dimensions of perceived controlling behavior such as negative conditional regard and intimidation, but not controlling use of praise and excessive controlling behavior from teachers, had significant positive

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Young Do Kim and Anthony Weaver

on-going illegal activities. It is evident that ineluctable exposure of the increased negativity and intimidation displayed instantly through social media can not only fuel extreme and outlandish fan behavior but also desensitize the viewer and make it acceptable to repeat it regardless of time and

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INTERNATIONAL SPORT COACHING JOURNAL

DIGEST VOLUME 8, ISSUE 2

-supportive” group rated their self-regulated performance higher than the moderately supported and controlled groups, making this the first study to show a direct relationship between coach behavior and SRL in sport. However, an unexpected positive relationship was also found between intimidation and SRL. Authors

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Paul A. Davis, Louise Davis, Samuel Wills, Ralph Appleby, and Arne Nieuwenhuys

think about something differently.” (P2)  Induce anxiety through intimidation. “A long stare maybe, just telling him like I was saying, ‘I’m gonna take your head soon or yeah you can’t bat, I’m gonna break your arm.’” (P8) Responses to Interpersonal Strategies  Use aggression to improve performance. “I

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Diane Benish, Jody Langdon, and Brian Culp

actively undermining athletes’ needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Coaches who engage in more controlling behaviors are distinguished by their (a) emphasis on tangible rewards, (b) controlling competency feedback, (c) excessive personal control, (d) intimidation behaviors such as verbal abuse

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Kim Gammage, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, and Kathleen Wilson

subthemes emerged among the three elements that make up a fitness community. For the element structured exercise classes with group dynamics , subthemes included personal and group accountability (fostering adherence from an intrapersonal and interpersonal perspective) and minimizing intimidation (the