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Alaaddine El-Chab and Miriam E. Clegg

to the results and hence reduce their reproducibility ( Brouns et al., 2005 ). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise (walking and cycling) prior to testing on the intraindividual variability of blood glucose and insulin responses. We hypothesized that

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Anthony J. Amorose

This study examined: (a) the prevalence of intraindividual variability (i.e., the degree to which individuals exhibit short-term fluctuations in their self-evaluations) of global self-worth, physical self-worth, and perceived physical competence; (b) the independent and combined influence of level and intraindividual variability of self-evaluations on students’ motivation; and (c) the relationship between social sources of evaluative information and intraindividual variability. Students (N = 167) ranging from 12 to 15 years of age (M = 13.48 yrs, SD = .56) completed questionnaires each day that they were in physical education class for 3 weeks (i.e., 6 occasions). Results revealed that most of the students exhibited fluctuations in their self-evaluations over the 3 weeks. Level of self-evaluations was the critical predictor of motivation; however, an interaction with intraindividual variability was also significant. Nonsignificant relationships were found between intraindividual variability and the importance that students placed on social sources of evaluative information. Overall, results indicated that intraindividual variability should be considered along with level as an important index of one’s self-perception profile.

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Stephanie A. Hooker, Laura B. Oswald, Kathryn J. Reid and Kelly G. Baron

valuable information is gained from this approach, it inherently ignores information about intraindividual variability from day to day in health behavior engagement. To date, little is known about whether variability of health behavior engagement within a person is associated with health and well-being. Of

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Shu-Shih Hsieh, Yu-Kai Chang, Chin-Lung Fang and Tsung-Min Hung

The current study examined the effects of acute resistance exercise (RE) on adult males’ attention control. Eighteen younger males (23.9 ± 2.3 years) and 17 older males (66.4 ± 1.2 years) were recruited. Participants underwent a RE session and a reading session in a counterbalanced order. RE protocol required individuals to perform two sets of 10 repetitions of eight exercises using weights set at 70% of 10-repetition maximum. Attention control was assessed by go/no-go SART with intraindividual variability in reaction times (IIV in RT), in addition to reaction time and accuracy, employed as measures of attention control. Results indicated that IIV in RT was smaller following RE sessions than after reading sessions for both age groups. In addition, RTs were shorter after the exercise session. These findings suggest that RE enhances attention control in adult males and that the size of this effect is not moderated by age.

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Ann L. Gibson, Jenevieve L. Roper and Christine M. Mermier

Air displacement plethysmography (ADP) is a popular method for estimating body density (Db). Most ADP tests are performed once, with test-retest investigations scarce. Therefore, we investigated test-retest reliability of ADP. Active men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) volunteered and followed standard pretest guidelines. Participants wore dry, form-fitting swimwear and manufacturer-supplied swim caps. In a single session, two ADP trials with measured thoracic gas volume (TGV) were performed without repositioning participants. Separate 2 (sex) × 2 (ADP trial) repeated-measures ANOVAs were performed to investigate within-between comparisons of Db, TGV, body volume (Vb), and relative fatness (%BF). Paired t tests were used to investigate significant differences as appropriate. The Bland and Altman technique was used to depict individual intertrial variations. For all analyses, α =.05. A significant main effect for sex was found; men were lower in %BF and higher in all other variables compared with women. Individual variability was notable (ADP1–ADP2). The range of individual intertrial differences were larger for women than men, respectively, for Db (-0.0096–0.0045 g/cc; -0.0019–0.0054 g/cc), TGV (-0.623–1.325 L; -0.584–0.378 L), Vb (-0.249–2.10 L; -0.234–0.397 L), and %BF (-2.1–4.4%; -0.2–0.9%). When assessing body composition of women via ADP or using Db from ADP in a multicomponent model, at least two trials with measured TGV should be performed and the average of the values recorded and reported.

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Dalia Mickeviciene, Renata Rutkauskaite, Dovile Valanciene, Diana Karanauskiene, Marius Brazaitis and Albertas Skurvydas

but also reduce the intraindividual variability of motor performance to a greater extent than children and older adults. In view of this hypothesis, at present, it remains unclear whether there are different movement performance strategies during fast learning and what strategies people of different

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Sigridur L. Gudmundsdottir

vs weekends or night-to-night variability) may also affect restitution and health as intraindividual variability in sleep has been related to a number of physical and neurodevelopmental conditions in children and adolescents, as well as psychopathology symptoms, weight, stress, cognitive functioning

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Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Romain Meeusen, Iñigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter and Jürgen Beckmann

reliable marker in team sports, 4 , 13 while urea nitrogen provides promising results in endurance-based sports. 13 However, their value when using them on a regular basis remains unclear, as these measures are prone to large interindividual and intraindividual variability in both baseline values and the

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Simone Nicolai, Petra Benzinger, Dawn A. Skelton, Kamiar Aminian, Clemens Becker and Ulrich Lindemann

The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a 24-hr recording period is sufficient to describe physical activity (PA) of 1 week for intraindividual comparison in older adults. Furthermore, the authors analyzed whether physical performance can be used as a surrogate marker of PA. PA was captured on 7 consecutive days by a body-fixed sensor in 44 community-dwelling older adults (80.75 ± 4.05 yr). Mean times of walking and of “time on feet” of the group were 10.2 hr (± 3.5) and 35.1 hr (± 9.43), respectively. Intraindividual variabilities of walking and of time on feet were 31.9% ± 10.79% and 19.4% ± 8.76%, respectively. Accumulated time of variables of PA showed no differences between weekdays, with variabilities of 3.8% and 1.8% for walking and time on feet, respectively. Association between Short Physical Performance Battery and PA was limited (walking r = .397, time on feet r = .41).

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Danette M. Rogers, Kenneth R. Turley, Kathleen I. Kujawa, Kevin M. Harper and Jack H. Wilmore

This study was designed to examine the reliability and variability of running economy in 7-, 8-, and 9-year-old boys and girls. Forty-two children (21 boys and 21 girls) participated in two submaximal treadmill tests to determine running economy at two absolute work rates (5 mph and 6 mph). Reliability and variability were determined for oxygen consumption (V̇O2), heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), stride frequency, and stride length. With the exception of RER and V̇O2 relative to body surface area, reliability estimates were moderate to high (.80 to .94). Mean variability of all responses were similar to those reported for adults, however, the range of intraindividual variability was slightly greater. These results indicate that two submaximal measurements result in higher reliability estimates than a single test and may therefore provide a more appropriate description of a child’s running economy.