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Eryk P. Przysucha and Brian K.V. Maraj

The nature of intra- and interlimb (bimanual) coordination was examined in ten boys with (M = 10.5 years, SD = 1.0) and without DCD (M = 10.8 years, SD = .9) in a two-handed catching task. Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) caught significantly fewer balls (MDCD = 56%, SD = 17.6 vs. MnoDCD = 93%, SD = 7.5), and both groups solved the “degrees of freedom problem” differently at intralimb level of coordination. Typically developing children coupled and decoupled the respective spatial relations, whereas the majority of children with DCD segmented their actions. At interlimb level, both groups exhibited a comparable degree of spatial symmetry. However, individual profiles also showed that children with varying degrees of movement issues exhibited movement patterns that were qualitatively and functionally diverse. Overall, in the context of previous research on interlimb coordination it appears that spatial, in addition to temporal organization, may be jeopardized in at least some children with DCD.

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Dennis E. Dever, Kellen T. Krajewski, Camille C. Johnson, Katelyn F. Allison, Nizam U. Ahamed, Mita Lovalekar, Qi Mi, Shawn D. Flanagan, William J. Anderst, and Chris Connaboy

velocity in recruit-aged, physically active women. The secondary purpose was to determine the interactive effects of load magnitude and locomotion pattern, specifically running versus forced marching, on intralimb coordination. The final purpose was to determine the interactive effects of load magnitude

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Bryan C. Heiderscheit, Joseph Hamill, and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP) display a reduction in intralimb joint coordination variability compared to nonimpaired persons. In addition, it was hypothesized that the variability of the stride characteristics would be similar between groups. Eight individuals with unilateral PFP and 8 nonimpaired participants ran on a treadmill at a fixed (2.68 m·s–1) and preferred speed while stride characteristics and 3-D kinematics of the bilateral lower extremities were recorded. Intralimb coordination variability was measured using a vector coding technique applied to relative motion plots of various joint couplings. The PFP group displayed greater stride length variability during running at the preferred speed. However, this was not the case during running at the fixed speed. When averaging across the entire stride cycle, coordination variability for all joint couplings was consistent between the two groups. However, further analysis about heel-strike revealed reduced joint coordination variability for the thigh rotation/leg rotation coupling of the PFP group’s injured limb compared to that of the nonimpaired group. With the exception of the transverse plane rotations at heel-strike, it would appear that the level of pain experienced by the PFP participants may not be great enough to produce a change in the intralimb coordination patterns during running.

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Ching-yi Wu, Shih-han Chou, Mei-ying Kuo, Chiung-ling Chen, Tung-wu Lu, and Yang-chieh Fu

Stroke patients are often left with hemiplegia or hemiparesis of the upper extremities, severely limiting the ability to perform bimanual and functional activities. No studies have investigated how stroke patients adapt their movements to changes in object size in functionally asymmetric bimanual tasks. The influence of object size on intralimb and interlimb coordination during an asymmetrical, functional bimanual task was examined in patients with left cerebral vascular accidents (LCVA) and healthy controls. Fourteen LCVA patients and 13 age-matched controls were instructed to reach to grasp a large and a small jar with the right/affected hand and to open the cap with the other hand. Movement kinematics was analyzed for intralimb coordination (spatial and temporal planning of reaching and grasping) and interlimb coordination (bimanual synchronization and temporal association of the hands). The results demonstrate a spatial adaptation of reaching in the affected hand to the object size and deficits in temporal planning of grasping with the affected hand to object size in the stroke patients. Movement adaptations of the unaffected hand in the stroke patients were similar to those in the healthy adults. Bimanual coordination was independent of object size for both groups.

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Dejan Tepavac and Edelle Carmen Field-Fote

The evaluation of a vector coding technique to quantify intersegmental coupling within a limb over multiple cycles of walking is described. The angular position of the knee with respect to the hip during walking was examined based on relative motion plots generated from videographic data. Participants included one able-bodied individual and one with spinal cord injury; the latter was assessed before and after participating in an assisted walking program. Vector coding of the frame-to-frame changes in hip/knee relationship was used to quantify the relative motion plots. Vector analysis techniques were then used to produce a single value that represents the overall variability of the hip/knee coupling relationship over multiple cycles. Hypothetical and random data were also used to evaluate the coding algorithm. In addition, the technique was compared to an earlier method in the analysis of this same data. Vector coding provided an easily interpretable method of quantifying the intersegmental coupling relationships and assessing the degree of consistency in the intralimb coordination over multiple cycles. The measure is sensitive to change in the kinematic variables and appears to have good validity. In addition, this technique has advantages over prior techniques as it allows simultaneous comparison of multiple cycles, calculations are performed quickly, and the algorithm is easy to program.

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Jane E. Clark

.1080/00222895.1987.10735422 10.1080/00222895.1987.10735422 Clark , J.E. , & Phillips , S.J. ( 1991 ). The development of intralimb coordination in the first six months of walking . In J. Fagard & P. Wolff (Eds.), The development of timing control and temporal organization in coordinated action (pp.  245 – 257

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Jill Whitall, Nadja Schott, Leah E. Robinson, Farid Bardid, and Jane E. Clark

patterns and rate-limiting constraints. For example, Clark and Phillips ( 1993 ) studied the development of intralimb coordination in the first year of independent walking, Whitall and Getchell ( 1995 ) studied constraints in the development of running, Ulrich and colleagues ( Ulrich, Ulrich, & Collier

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Yumeng Li, Rumit S. Kakar, Marika A. Walker, Li Guan, and Kathy J. Simpson

affecting the intralimb coordination of hemiparetic gait . Hum Mov Sci . 2000 ; 19 : 251 – 273 . doi:10.1016/S0167-9457(00)00014-2 10.1016/S0167-9457(00)00014-2 8. McGibbon CA , Krebs DE . Age-related changes in lower trunk coordination and energy transfer during gait . J Neurophysiol . 2001 ; 85

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Tomasz Skowronek, Grzegorz Juras, and Kajetan J. Słomka

, Dias JA , Gheller RG , Detanico D , Dos Santos SG . Stiffness, intralimb coordination, and joint modulation during a continuous vertical jump test . Sport Biomech . 2013 ; 12 ( 3 ): 259 – 271 . doi:10.1080/14763141.2013.769619 10.1080/14763141.2013.769619 18. Gutin B . Exercise

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Kolby J. Brink, Kari L. McKenzie, and Aaron D. Likens

, 58 bimanual limb movements, 59 intralimb coordination, 17 , 57 , 58 and changes in coordination due to pathology. 60 – 62 The largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE) has been one of the most popular methods to measure the behavior of a continuously changing system over time and has been used to analyze