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David Markland

According to Deci and Ryan’s (1985) self-determination theory, perceptions of self-determination moderate the effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation, with perceived competence only positively influencing intrinsic motivation under conditions of some self-determination. Vallerand’s (1997) hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation suggests that self-determination and competence have only independent effects on intrinsic motivation. The aim of this study was to test these competing models. Women aerobics participants (n = 146) completed measures of self-determination, perceived competence, and intrinsic motivation for exercise. Moderated hierarchical regression revealed a significant interactive effect of self-determination and perceived competence. A plot of the regression of intrinsic motivation on perceived competence under conditions of high and low self-determination, however, showed that the interaction did not take the expected form. Variations in perceived competence positively influenced intrinsic motivation only under conditions of low self-determination. This suggests that it is particularly important to foster perceptions of competence among individuals low in self-determination.

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Jeffrey J. Selfriz, Joan L. Duda and Likang Chi

Drawing from contemporary goal perspective theories of achievement motivation, this investigation had as its primary purpose to determine the relationship of perceived motivational climate to intrinsic motivation and attributional beliefs in a sport setting. This study also examined the degree to which the dependent variables of interest are a function of situational goal structure, dispositional goal orientations, or both. Subjects, 105 male basketball players from nine varsity high school teams, were requested to complete the four instruments. Results indicated that the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire was comprised of two valid and reliable subscales, the Mastery and Performance Climate scales. Perceptions of a mastery-oriented climate positively related to reported enjoyment and the belief that effort leads to achievement. Perceptions of a performance-oriented climate were associated with the view that superior ability causes success. In general, indices of intrinsic motivation and attributional beliefs were best predicted by dispositional goal orientation.

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Anthony J. Amorose and Thelma S. Horn

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among athletes’ intrinsic motivation (IM), gender, scholarship status, perceptions of the number of their teammates receiving scholarships, and perceptions of their coaches’ behavior. Male and female college athletes (N = 386) from a variety of Division I sports completed a series of paper-and-pencil questionnaires. Multivariate analyses revealed that (a) scholarship athletes reported higher levels of IM than did nonscholarship athletes, (b) male athletes reported higher IM than did female athletes, and (c) perceived coaching behaviors were related to athletes’ IM. Specifically, athletes with higher IM perceived their coaches to exhibit a leadership style that emphasized training and instruction and was high in democratic behavior and low in autocratic behavior. In addition, athletes with higher levels of IM perceived that their coaches provided high frequencies of positive and informationally based feedback and low frequencies of punishment-oriented and ignoring behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of cognitive evaluation theory.

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Rachel E. Brinkman-Majewski and Windee M. Weiss

evaluation theory, an individual’s level of intrinsic motivation toward an activity is dependent on 2 psychological processes: if the individual (1) perceives themselves as being competent in the activity and (2) believes they have sense of control with the activity, there will be an increase in intrinsic

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Weidong Li, Paul M. Wright, Paul Bernard Rukavina and Molly Pickering

The purpose of the current study was to test the validity and reliability of a two-factor model of the Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire (PSRQ) and examine the relationships between perceptions of personal and social responsibility and intrinsic motivation in physical education. Participants were 253 middle school students who completed the questionnaires. The results from a confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency suggest the two-factor PSRQ is valid and reliable for assessing students’ perceptions of personal and social responsibility in physical education. The correlational analysis suggests that participants with higher levels of personal and social responsibility were likely to enjoy physical education more. An important implication for teaching practice is that, to encourage all individuals to be intrinsically motivated to participate in physical education, physical education teachers need to empower students with choices and voices, focus them on effort and self-direction in physical education, and create a respectful and caring learning environment.

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Sachi Ikudome, Kou Kou, Kisho Ogasa, Shiro Mori and Hiroki Nakamoto

learning of exercise routines is enhanced by giving participants an incidental choice (i.e., practice order) because the participants’ need for autonomy is satisfied ( Wulf & Adams, 2014 ). In other words, motor skill learning under self-controlled practice is facilitated by enhanced intrinsic motivation

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Marios Goudas, Stuart Biddle and Kenneth Fox

This study examined the relationship between dispositional achievement goal orientations and intrinsic motivation following physical fitness testing. Students, aged 11–15 years, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, participated in the 20-m progressive shuttle run test, and then completed a modified Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Using their goal orientations, students were placed into one of four groups: low in both task and ego, high ego/low task, high task/low ego, and high in both task and ego. A MANOVA indicated that for students in the “high” and “low” performance groups, differences in intrinsic motivation between goal orientation groups were found. Perceived success and goal orientations had independent effects on intrinsic motivation for the lower performance group but interacted to influence intrinsic motivation for the higher performance group. It is concluded that children have different motivational reactions to fitness testing, depending on their goal profile, performance, and perceived success.

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Tao Zhang, Melinda A. Solmon, Maria Kosma, Russell L. Carson and Xiangli Gu

Using self-determination theory as a framework, the purpose of this study was to test a structural model of hypothesized relationships among perceived need support from physical education teachers (autonomy support, competence support, and relatedness support), psychological need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness), intrinsic motivation, and physical activity. Participants were 286 middle school students in the southeastern U.S. They completed previously validated questionnaires assessing their perceived need support from teachers, need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and physical activity. The hypothesized model demonstrated a good fit with the data (RMSEA = .08; CFI = .97; NFI = .96; GFI = .96). Need satisfaction and intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between need support and physical activity. The constructs of perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness represent the nutriments that facilitate students’ intrinsic motivation and ultimately positively predict students’ physical activity. The findings supported the theoretical tenets of self-determination theory.

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Robert J. Vallerand and Greg Reid

The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the psychological processes proposed by cognitive evaluation theory (Deci & Ryan, 1980) when the informational aspect of the situation is salient. More specifically, it was the purpose of this study to determine whether the effects of verbal feedback on intrinsic motivation are mediated by perceived competence. Male undergraduate students (N = 115) participated in a first phase wherein their intrinsic motivation and perceived competence toward an interesting motor task, the stabilometer, was assessed. Subjects (N = 84) who reported at least a moderate level of intrinsic motivation toward the task returned for the second phase of the study in which they were subjected to conditions of either positive, negative, or no verbal feedback of performance. Intrinsic motivation and perceived competence were again assessed. One-way analyses of variance with dependent variables, intrinsic motivation and perceived competence change scores from the first to the second phase, showed that positive feedback increased while negative feedback decreased both intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Results of a path analysis conducted with verbal feedback, perceived competence, and intrinsic

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Edward McAuley and Vanee V. Tammen

The present study was designed to assess the effects of subjective and objective competitive outcomes on intrinsic motivation following completion of a one-on-one basketball jump-shooting competition. Researchers all too often operationalize competitive outcomes in terms of winning and losing, and neglect to examine performance from the subjective perspective of the individual. The intrinsic motivation of winners and losers and individuals high and low in perceived success were compared by employing a multidimensional measure of intrinsic motivation. Results indicated that both winners and high success individuals displayed significantly greater intrinsic motivation than losers and low. success individuals, respectively. However, multivariate analyses of variance demonstrated significant differences only between the perceived success groups when intrinsic motivation was examined at a multidimensional level. Specifically, high success individuals perceived themselves as trying; harder, being more competent, and enjoying' the activity "more. These findings are discussed from a cognitive evaluation perspective that: focuses on the role played by self-perception of events in relation to motivational processes.