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Matthew P. Martens and S. Nicole Webber

Motivation, particularly different types of motivation (i.e., intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation), is a topic that has been of interest to both psychologists and sport psychologists. One area of interest in sport psychology is the assessment of different types of motivation. The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) (Pelletier et al., 1995) was created to assess an athlete’s intrinsic motivation, extrinsic-motivation, and a motivation toward sport participation. The psychometric properties of the SMS, however, have not been tested on a sample of college athletes in the U.S., which is an important component if researchers and applied sport psychologists are to use the SMS with this population. A total of 270 U.S. college athletes participated in this study. Results provided some evidence for the reliability and validity of the SMS for this population, although a confirmatory factor analysis yielded relatively poor fit indices, indicating problems with model specification. A “piecewise” model testing approach, in which different components of the model were tested separately, indicated that the biggest problems with model specification may involve the extrinsic and amotivation components of the measure.

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Rachel E. Brinkman-Majewski and Windee M. Weiss

evaluation theory, an individual’s level of intrinsic motivation toward an activity is dependent on 2 psychological processes: if the individual (1) perceives themselves as being competent in the activity and (2) believes they have sense of control with the activity, there will be an increase in intrinsic

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Philomena B. Ikulayo and Johnson A. Semidara

This article discusses unorthodox sport psychology practices typical with Nigerian athletes, which differ from Western mainstream practice models. These practices are specific Nigerian cultural approaches to sport psychology and are based on two broad types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The intrinsic aspects include prayers, chanting of songs, verbalization of incantations, psyching verses, and juju and spirits in motivational processes. The extrinsic strategies include praise singing, audience verbalization, drumming effects, persistent silent audiences’ effects, and presence of important persons as spectators or part of the audience. The article concludes with the hope that some of these unique practice strategies will be further researched and will be viable for adoption by athletes in other nations of the world who believe in their power so that multicultural practices can help advance the field of sport psychology.

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Sarah Labudek, Lena Fleig, Carl-Philipp Jansen, Franziska Kramer-Gmeiner, Corinna Nerz, Clemens Becker, Jochen Klenk, and Michael Schwenk

invest to enact a certain behavior. The SDT proposes that motivation is controlled or self-determined. That is, individuals could act upon external demands or out of their own interest and choice. More self-determined types of motivation, that is, intrinsic, integrated, and identified motivation, stand

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Chris Lonsdale, Ken Hodge, and Elaine A. Rose

The purpose of the four studies described in this article was to develop and test a new measure of competitive sport participants’ intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation (self-determination theory; Deci & Ryan, 1985). The items for the new measure, named the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), were constructed using interviews, expert review, and pilot testing. Analyses supported the internal consistency, test–retest reliability, and factorial validity of the BRSQ scores. Nomological validity evidence was also supportive, as BRSQ subscale scores were correlated in the expected pattern with scores derived from measures of motivational consequences. When directly compared with scores derived from the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS; Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tuson, & Blais, 1995) and a revised version of that questionnaire (SMS-6; Mallett, Kawabata, Newcombe, Otero-Forero, & Jackson, 2007), BRSQ scores demonstrated equal or superior reliability and factorial validity as well as better nomological validity.

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Sachi Ikudome, Kou Kou, Kisho Ogasa, Shiro Mori, and Hiroki Nakamoto

learning of exercise routines is enhanced by giving participants an incidental choice (i.e., practice order) because the participants’ need for autonomy is satisfied ( Wulf & Adams, 2014 ). In other words, motor skill learning under self-controlled practice is facilitated by enhanced intrinsic motivation

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Aliza K. Nedimyer, Brian G. Pietrosimone, Brittney A. Luc-Harkey, and Erik A. Wikstrom

Key Points ▸ History of exercise-related lower leg pain increases reliance on vision during stance. ▸ History of exercise-related lower leg pain decreases intrinsic foot muscle morphology. ▸ Increased visual reliance is positively associated with decreased muscle morphology. Running has numerous

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Eric A. Storch, Jason B. Storch, Adrienne H. Kovacs, Aubree Okun, and Eric Welsh

Although there has been little research examining religiosity in athletes, recent evidence suggests that it may play an important role in the lives of some athletes. The present study investigated the relationship of intrinsic religiosity to substance use in intercollegiate athletes. The Intrinsic Religiosity subscale of the Duke Religion Index, the Alcohol Problems subscale of the Personality Assessment Inventory, and two questions assessing marijuana and other drug use were completed by 105 varsity athletes. Findings indicated that intrinsic religiosity was inversely associated with alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use. Implications of these findings for sport practitioners are discussed.

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John J. Fraser and Jay Hertel

The intrinsic foot muscles (IFMs) are the principal foot stabilizers and are integral in the passive, active, and neural subsystems that comprise the foot core. 1 They function by altering foot shape in preparation for loading during accommodation to uneven terrain, providing afferent information

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John J. Fraser, Rachel Koldenhoven, and Jay Hertel

superficial and deep posterior compartment and the plantar intrinsic foot muscles (IFMs) are innervated by the tibial nerve. Large and significant reductions in plantarflexion, hallux flexion, and lesser toe flexion strength have been observed in individuals with recent LAS and CAI. 5 While toe flexion is