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Kyle M.A. Thompson, Alanna K. Whinton, Shane Ferth, Lawrence L. Spriet and Jamie F. Burr

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) was originally developed to reduce cell necrosis during prolonged periods of ischemia. 1 In addition to the cytoprotective effects of IPC, the stimuli from cyclical periods of localized ischemia, which is similar to the periods of vascular occlusion caused by maximal

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Christian P. Cheung, Joshua T. Slysz and Jamie F. Burr

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is an experimental technique that involves intermittent periods of complete blood flow occlusion and reperfusion of a limb. 1 Whether applied locally or remotely, IPC has been shown to have cardioprotective effects against ischemic–reperfusion injury. 1 , 2 Despite

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen and Helen Jones

Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) refers to the phenomenon whereby 3 or 4 brief periods of ischemia, followed by tissue reperfusion, confer subsequent tissue protection against ischemic insult. 1 IPC can be applied remotely by placing a blood-pressure cuff around a limb and inflating to suprasystolic

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Philippe Richard and François Billaut

accentuated local hypoxic stress that may hasten peripheral fatigue development. 1 The precise effects of variations in muscular oxygenation on speed skating performance are, however, not clearly understood. Local ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) expose tissue to

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Amadeo F. Salvador, Rafael A. De Aguiar, Felipe D. Lisbôa, Kayo L. Pereira, Rogério S. de O. Cruz and Fabrizio Caputo

Although the amount of evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on exercise performance is increasing, conclusions about its efficacy cannot yet be drawn. Therefore, the purposes of this review were to determine the effect of IPC on exercise performance and identify the effects of different IPC procedures, exercise types, and subject characteristics on exercise performance. The analysis comprised 19 relevant studies from 2000 to 2015, 15 of which were included in the meta-analyses. Effect sizes (ES) were calculated as the standardized mean difference. Overall, IPC had a small beneficial effect on exercise performance (ES = 0.43; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 to 0.51). The largest ES were found for aerobic (ES = 0.51; 90% CI, 0.35 to 0.67) and anaerobic (ES = 0.23; 90% CI, -0.12 to 0.58) exercise. In contrast, an unclear effect was observed in power and sprint performance (ES = 0.16; 90% CI, –0.20 to 0.52). In conclusion, IPC can effectively enhance aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance.

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Neil Gibson, James White, Mhari Neish and Andrew Murray

Purpose:

The study aimed to assess whether exposure to ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in a trained population would affect land-based maximal sprinting performance over 30 m.

Methods:

Twenty-five well-trained participants regularly involved in invasion-type team-sport events were recruited to take part in a randomized crossover study design. Participants underwent both an IPC and a placebo treatment involving 3 periods of 5-min occlusion applied unilaterally (3 × 5-min occlusion to each leg) at either 220 mmHg or 50 mmHg, respectively. Each period of occlusion was followed by 5 min of reperfusion. After treatment, 3 maximal sprints over a distance of 30 m were undertaken from a standing start interspersed with 1-min recovery. Split times were recorded at 10, 20, and 30 m.

Results:

No significant effects of the IPC treatment were observed on sprint speed (P < .05) at any of the split timings; however, a small and negative effect was observed in female participants. Calculated effect sizes of the treatment were found to be trivial (<0.2).

Conclusions:

Results from the current study suggest there to be no benefit to team-sport players in using IPC as a means of enhancing sprint performance over a distance of 30 m. While IPC has been shown to be beneficial to sprint activities in other sports such as swimming, further research is required to elucidate whether this is the case over distances associated with land-based events in track and field or in events reliant on repeated-sprint ability.

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Blair Mills, Brad Mayo, Francisco Tavares and Matthew Driller

on their impact following a tissue-flossing intervention are only speculative. Future research should aim to investigate the influence of such physiological mechanisms and their impact, following a tissue-flossing intervention. Previous mechanisms that have been suggested in ischemic preconditioning

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Liam P. Kilduff, Charlotte V. Finn, Julien S. Baker, Christian J. Cook and Daniel J. West

Sports scientists and strength and conditioning professionals spend the majority of the competition season trying to ensure that their athletes’ training and recovery strategies are appropriate to ensure optimal performance on competition day. However, there is an additional window on the day of competition where performance can be acutely enhanced with a number of preconditioning strategies. These strategies include appropriately designed warm-up, passive heat maintenance, postactivation potentiation, remote ischemic preconditioning, and, more recently, prior exercise and hormonal priming. The aim of this review was to explore the potential practical use of these strategies and propose a theoretical timeline outlining how they may be incorporated into athlete’s precompetition routine to enhance performance. For the purpose of this review the discussion is confined to strategies that may enhance performance of short-duration, high-intensity sports (eg, sprinting, jumping, throwing).

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Llion A. Roberts, Johnpaul Caia, Lachlan P. James, Tannath J. Scott and Vincent G. Kelly

recovery from high-intensity exercise where blood glucose peak level is much greater than following prolonged exercise, and more glycogen resynthesis is required. 23 The findings of the current study align with research involving skeletal muscle ischemic preconditioning. Patterson et al 24 showed likely

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Giovanna Ghiani, Sara Magnani, Azzurra Doneddu, Gianmarco Sainas, Virginia Pinna, Marco Caboi, Girolamo Palazzolo, Filippo Tocco and Antonio Crisafulli

). Ischemic preconditioning reduces hemodynamic response during metaboreflex activation . American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 310 , 777 – 787 . doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00429.2015 10.1152/ajpregu.00429.2015 Myers , S.D. , Leamon , S.M. , Nevola , V