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Joseph B. Lesnak, Dillon T. Anderson, Brooke E. Farmer, Dimitrios Katsavelis, and Terry L. Grindstaff

phases of rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. 13 To quantify the strength of an isometric contraction, peak torque can be collected during a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) via an isokinetic dynamometer or handheld dynamometer. As both an MVIC and an isotonic 1RM require maximal

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Bin Chen, Lifen Liu, Lincoln Bin Chen, Xianxin Cao, Peng Han, Chenhao Wang, and Qi Qi

setup were shown in Figure  1 . Figure 1 Experimental design of the study and data collection setup of handheld dynamometer. In order to investigate the concurrent validity of the hand-held dynamometer, the isometric shoulder rotational strength was also tested with an isokinetic dynamometer (IsoMed

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Nicola Relph and Lee Herrington

Context: Clinicians require portable, valid, and cost-effective methods to monitor knee joint-position-sense (JPS) ability. Objective: To examine the criterion-related validity of image-capture JPS measures against an isokinetic-dynamometer (IKD) procedure. Design: Random crossover design providing a comparison of knee JPS measures from image capture and IKD procedures. Participants: 10 healthy participants, 5 female, age 28.0 ± 13.29 y, mass 60.3 ± 9.02 kg, height 1.65 ± 0.07 m, and 5 male, 29.6 ± 10.74 y, mass 73.6 ± 5.86 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.07 m. Main Outcome Measures: The dependent variables were absolute error scores (AES) provided by 2 knee directions (flexion and extension). The independent variables were the method (image capture and IKD). Results: There was no significant difference between clinical and IKD AED into knee-extension data (P = .263, r = 0.55). There was a significant difference between clinical and IKD AES into knee-flexion data (P = .016, r =.70). Conclusions: Analysis of photographic images to assess JPS measurements using knee flexion is valid against IKD techniques. However, photo-analysis measurements provided a lower error score using knee-extension data and thus may provide an optimal environment to produce maximal knee JPS acuity. Therefore, clinicians do not need expensive equipment to collect representative JPS ability.

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Thomas W. Kaminski, David H. Perrin, Carl G. Mattacola, Joseph E. Szczerba, and Julie N. Bernier

This study examined the test-retest reliability of a prototype device used to measure ankle inversion and eversion isokinetic average torque values. The purpose of this paper was to illustrate a situation where common isokinetic measures were reliable but not valid. Concentric and eccentric average torque was assessed at 90 deg/s on the Kin Com II dynamometer using 14 healthy subjects in two sessions; a manufactured prototype ankle inversion/eversion attachment device was used. Reliability was assessed by performing separate intraclass correlations (ICC 2,1) on the results. The data indicated that the average torque calculated from the clockwise direction was consistently higher than those values from the counterclockwise direction, regardless of ankle movement or side measured. The validity of this prototype device to accurately measure average torque for these two ankle motions is questionable. This finding demonstrates a situation where the measures appear to be reliable while the validity of the device used to obtain the measures is suspect.

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Barıs Seven, Gamze Cobanoglu, Deran Oskay, and Nevin Atalay-Guzel

assessment and accurate measurement is not possible. Another frequently used evaluation method is with a hand-held dynamometer. However, some specialties of raters such as gender, body weight, and grip strength affect a rater’s reliability in obtaining torque measurements. 6 Isokinetic dynamometers are

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Mark A. King and Maurice R. Yeadon

This paper describes a method for defining the maximum torque that can be produced at a joint from isovelocity torque measurements on an individual. The method is applied to an elite male gymnast in order to calculate subject-specific joint torque parameters for the knee joint. Isovelocity knee extension torque data were collected for the gymnast using a two-repetition concentric-eccentric protocol over a 75° range of crank motion at preset crank angular velocities ranging from 20 to 250°s–1. During these isovelocity movements, differences of up to 35° were found between the angle of the dynamometer crank and the knee joint angle of the participant. In addition, faster preset crank angular velocities gave smaller ranges of isovelocity motion for both the crank and joint. The simulation of an isovelocity movement at a joint angular velocity of 150°s–1 showed that, for realistic series elastic component extensions, the angular velocity of the joint can be assumed to be the same as the angular velocity of the contractile component during most of the isovelocity trial. Fitting an 18-parameter exponential function to experimental isovelocity joint torque/ angle/ angular velocity data resulted in a surface that was well behaved over the complete range of angular velocities and within the specified range of joint angles used to calculate the surface.

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Maurice R. Yeadon and Mark A. King

The use of computer simulation models in studies of human movement is now widespread. Most of these models, however, have not been evaluated in a quantitative manner in order to establish the level of accuracy that may be expected. Without such an evaluation, little credence should be given to the published results and conclusions. This paper presents a simulation model of tumbling takeoffs which is evaluated by comparing the simulation output with an actual performance of an elite gymnast. A five-segment planar model was developed to simulate tumbling takeoffs. The model comprised rigid foot, leg, thigh, trunk + head, and arm segments with two damped linear springs to represent the elasticity of the tumbling track/ gymnast interface. Torque generators were included at the ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder joints in order to allow each joint to open actively during the takeoff. The model was customized to the elite gymnast by determining subject-specific inertia and torque parameters. Good agreement was found between actual and simulated tumbling performances of a double layout somersault with 1% difference in the linear and angular momenta at takeoff. Allowing the activation timings of the four torque generators to vary resulted in an optimized simulation that was some 0.32 m higher than the evaluation simulation. These simulations suggest the model is a realistic representation of the elite gymnast, since otherwise the model would either fail to reproduce the double layout somersault or would produce a very different optimized solution.

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Timothy L. Uhl, Thomas Rice, Brianna Papotto, and Timothy A. Butterfield


The role of the rotator cuff is to provide dynamic stability to the glenohumeral joint. Human and animal studies have identified sarcomerogenesis as an outcome of eccentric training indicated by more torque generation with the muscle in a lengthened position.


The authors hypothesized that a home-based eccentric-exercise program could increase the shoulder external rotators’ eccentric strength at terminal internal rotation (IR).


Prospective case series.


Clinical laboratory and home exercising.


10 healthy subjects (age 30 ± 10 y).


All participants performed 2 eccentric exercises targeting the posterior shoulder for 6 wk using a home-based intervention program using side-lying external rotation (ER) and horizontal abduction.

Main Outcome Measures:

Dynamic eccentric shoulder strength measured at 60°/s through a 100° arc divided into 4 equal 25° arcs (ER 50–25°, ER 25–0°, IR 0–25°, IR 25–50°) to measure angular impulse to represent the work performed. In addition, isometric shoulder ER was measured at 5 points throughout the arc of motion (45° IR, 30° IR, 15° IR, 0°, and 15° ER). Comparison of isometric and dynamic strength from pre- to posttesting was evaluated with a repeated-measure ANOVA using time and arc or positions as within factors.


The isometric force measures revealed no significant differences between the 5 positions (P = .56). Analysis of the dynamic eccentric data revealed a significant difference between arcs (P = .02). The percentage-change score of the arc of IR 25–50° was found to be significantly greater than that of the arc of IR 0–25° (P = .007).


After eccentric training the only arc of motion that had a positive improvement in the capacity to absorb eccentric loads was the arc of motion that represented eccentric contractions at the longest muscle length.

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Rodrigo de M. Baldon, Leonardo Furlan, and Fábio V. Serrão

The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of the hip flexion angle on isokinetic rotator torque and acceleration times of the hip medial and lateral rotator muscles. Twenty-one healthy women were included in this study. The hip rotator function was evaluated at 3 different hip flexion angles (10°, 40°, and 90°). The results showed that both eccentric and concentric hip lateral rotator torques were greater at 40° of hip flexion when compared with 90°. Moreover, both the eccentric and concentric hip medial rotator torques were greater at 90° of hip flexion than at 40° and 10°, and greater at 40° than at 10°. In addition, both the eccentric and concentric hip medial to lateral rotator torque ratios were greater at 90° of hip flexion than at 40° and 10°, and greater at 40° than at 10°. Finally, the acceleration times of the hip medial rotator muscles were smaller at 90° of hip flexion than at 10° and smaller at 40° than at 10°. The current results highlight the importance of evaluating the hip rotator muscles at different hip flexion angles to comprehensively assess their functions.

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Yi-Ju Tsai, Chieh-Chie Chia, Pei-Yun Lee, Li-Chuan Lin, and Yi-Liang Kuo

Context: Core control and strength are important for reducing the risk of lower-extremity injury. Current evidence on the effect of core training in male adolescent athletes is limited, and other investigations into the effects of core training often emphasized core strength only. Objective: To examine whether core training emphasizing both control and strength of the trunk and hip would improve joint kinematics during landing, sports performance, and lower-extremity muscle strength in adolescent male volleyball athletes. Design: Single group pretest and posttest design. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: Sixteen male participants (age: 13.4 [1] y, height: 167.8 [8.6] cm, mass: 58.6 [13.9] kg, and volleyball experience: 3.8 [1.5] y) from a Division I volleyball team at a junior high school. Main Outcome Measurements: Kinematics of the trunk and lower-extremity during box landing and spike jump landing tasks, volleyball-related sports performance, and isokinetic strength of hip and knee muscles were assessed before and after a 6-week core training program. Results: After training, the participants demonstrated decreased trunk flexion angle (P = .01, Cohen’s d = 0.78) during the box landing task and reduced the maximum knee internal rotation angle (P = .04, Cohen’s d = 0.56) during the spike jump landing task. The average isokinetic strength of hip flexors and external rotators, and knee flexors and extensors also significantly increased (P = .001, Cohen’s d = 0.98; P = .04, Cohen’s d = 0.57; P = .02, Cohen’s d = 0.66; P = .003, Cohen’s d = 0.87, respectively); however, sports performance did not show significant changes. Conclusions: A more erect landing posture following training suggests that the core training program may be beneficial for improving core stability. The long-term effect of core training for knee injury prevention needs further investigation.