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Yukio Urabe, Mitsuo Ochi and Kiyoshi Onari

Objective:

To investigate changes in muscle strength in the lower extremity after ACL reconstruction.

Design:

Prospective case series.

Dependent Variables:

Isokinetic muscle strength measured in 6 movements (hip extension/flexion, hip adduction/abduction, knee extension/flexion) and circumference of the thigh/calf.

Setting:

Clinic and home.

Patients:

44 (24 men, 20 women) between the ages of 16 and 47 years with an ACL rupture. All underwent reconstruction via a semitendinosus autograft.

Main Outcome Measures:

The peak torque for each joint movement was recorded. Repeated-measures ANOVA and power analysis were conducted to detect significant interaction effects.

Results:

The decline of muscle strength after ACL reconstruction remained not only in the knee extensors and flexors but also in the hip adductors.

Conclusion:

Rehabilitation programs that address the behavioral patterns and physiological characteristics of an ACL injury will benefit the athlete’s whole body and lead to a full recovery.

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Damien McKay, Genevieve Ostring, Carolyn Broderick, Jeffrey Chaitow and Davinder Singh-Grewal

This study assessed the magnitude of changes in isokinetic muscle strength in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) before and after treatment with intra-articular corticosteroid injection and assessed the feasibility of a larger study of the same effect. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to measure peak knee extension and flexion torque in 12 children before and after treatment for unilateral knee arthritis. Extensor and flexor strength was reduced on the affected side before treatment (-0.56Nm/kg, p = .004 and −0.24Nm/kg, p = .02 respectively). Increases in extensor strength were observed at two weeks (p = .01) and twelve weeks postinjection (p = .03). Improvements at 6 weeks approached but did not reach statistical significance (p = .17). Improvements in flexor strength were not observed until 12 weeks postinjection (p = .03). Despite significant improvements in extensor strength, low peak knee extensor torque continued to be observed at 12 weeks (p = .01). Knee extensor and flexor strength is reduced in children with JIA with active arthritis and improves following intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Significant improvements in knee extensor and flexor strength were seen postinjection; however deficits in extensor strength were still evident at three months. Isokinetic dynamometry was safe and well tolerated in our sample of children with JIA with active arthritis.

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Hyun Chul Jung, Myong Won Seo, Sukho Lee, Sung Woo Jung and Jong Kook Song

Wingate anaerobic test, isokinetic muscle strength and endurance, and field-based fitness battery tests (i.e., countermovement jump [CMJ], sit-ups, agility test, and pacer) were assessed for physical performance. Test–retest reliability was performed with 7-day intervals before the experiment. Intraclass

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John E. Kovaleski, Robert J. Heitman, Damon P.S. Andrew, Larry R. Gurchiek and Albert W. Pearsall IV

Context:

Isokinetic strength and functional performance are used to assess recovery after rehabilitation. It is not known whether low-speed closed-linear-kinetic isokinetic muscle strength correlates with functional performance.

Objective:

To investigate the relationship between linear closed (CKC) and open (OKC) concentric isokinetic strength of the dominant lower-limb extensors and functional performance.

Design:

Correlational analysis.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Participants:

Thirty uninjured men and women (age = 20.9 ± 2.4 years).

Main Outcome Measures:

Peak CKC and OKC isokinetic strength and best score from a shuttle run for time, single-leg vertical jump, and single-leg hop for distance.

Results:

Neither lower-limb CKC nor OKC isokinetic strength measured at low speeds correlated highly with performance on the functional tasks of jumping, hopping, and speed/agility.

Conclusions:

Although the basis of both closed and open isokinetic strength must be appreciated, they should not be the only determinants of functional performance.

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Hayri Baran Yosmaoglu, Gül Baltaci, Defne Kaya and Hamza Ozer

Context:

The development pattern of motor coordination, strength, and functional ability during recovery from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

Objective:

To investigate the relationship between motor coordination, functional ability, and strength after ACL reconstruction.

Design:

Prospective clinical follow-up study.

Setting:

Sports-injury research laboratory.

Participants:

20 subjects who underwent ACL reconstruction.

Interventions:

Real-time eccentric and concentric motor coordination were tested by a multijoint lower limb tracking-trajectory test, quadriceps and hamstring isokinetic strength were assessed by isokinetic dynamometer, and functional performance was tested with a single-leg-hop test 6 and 12 mo after ACL reconstruction.

Main Outcome Measures:

Percentage deficits of the involved lower extremity for target-tracking ability, peak torque, total work parameters of isokinetic strength, and single-leg-hop distance.

Results:

Deficits in hamstring–quadriceps isokinetic muscle strength and single-leg-hop distance significantly decreased from the 6th to the 12th mo after surgery (P < .05). There were no significant differences in muscle concentric and eccentric motor-coordination deficits of the involved side (P > .05).

Conclusions:

Although muscle strength and functional performance clearly increased from the 6th to the 12th mo after surgery, coordination characteristics of involved side remained low. This pattern demonstrated that motor-coordination progression was not affected by strength development. Patients continued to have significant motor-coordination deficits even 12 mo postsurgery. Therefore, the authors recommend that neuromuscular-coordination exercises be included in long-term rehabilitation programs to improve motor coordination.

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Yoshiko Hasebe, Yoshie Tanabe and Kazunori Yasuda

Context:

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with doubled hamstring autograft might not sufficiently improve fundamental sports abilities of patients with ACL-deficient knees.

Objective:

To clarify whether ACL reconstruction using the hamstring graft can improve fundamental sports abilities.

Design:

Patients were examined twice, preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively, using the conventional evaluation scales and performance tests.

Participants:

15 athletic patients with ACL reconstruction using hamstring autograft.

Measurements:

A stairs-run test and figure-8 one-leg hop test. Muscle strength and knee stability were measured with Cybex® II and KT-2000® arthrometers, respectively.

Results:

There were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative results in the performance tests. The degree of postoperative recovery in the subjective score, the anterior translation of the tibia, and the isokinetic muscle strength was not significantly correlated with the degree of restoration in each performance test.

Conclusions:

Postoperative restoration as measured by conventional evaluation scales is not correlated with restoration of sports abilities in patients with ACL insufficiency.

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Jin Hyuck Lee, Ji Soon Park and Woong Kyo Jeong

(ER), 33 Nm of internal rotators (IR), 29 Nm of abduction, and 35 Nm of flexion in isokinetic muscle strength. In regard to activity limitations or restrictions, the following were noted: 68/100 in the constant shoulder score and 41/50 in the shoulder pain and disability (SPADI) pain score and 53

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Bin Chen, Yichao Zhao, Xianxin Cao, Guojiong Hu, Lincoln B. Chen and Wenxin Niu

shoulder rotators imbalance. 17 – 19 These imbalanced shoulder rotators could not stabilize the humeral head to the center of glenoid, which contributes to increase the risk of impingement. 20 Isokinetic muscle strength testing is commonly used to evaluate eccentric and concentric peak torque of the

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Barıs Seven, Gamze Cobanoglu, Deran Oskay and Nevin Atalay-Guzel

, Mogensen CE , Jakobsen J . Isokinetic muscle strength in long-term IDDM patients in relation to diabetic complications . Diabetes . 1996 ; 45 ( 4 ): 440 – 445 . PubMed ID: 8603765 doi:10.2337/diab.45.4.440 8603765 10.2337/diab.45.4.440 12. Xu JF , Wang JS , Yu Y , He CQ . Intra- and

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Takuma Hoshiba, Hiroki Nakata, Yasuaki Saho, Kazuyuki Kanosue and Toru Fukubayashi

subjects in the control group, as we verified that there were no significant variations over time in our pilot study. Assessment of Isokinetic Knee Extensor and Flexor Strength Isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors, for both lower limbs, was measured on separate days, 1 month before