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Özlem Aslan, Elif Balevi Batur and Jale Meray

contraction occurs during leg flexion. 12 , 13 Thus, it is crucial to determine the affected muscle groups’ contraction mode before planning the isokinetic exercise program in rehabilitation. The use of functional hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) ratio (Heccentric/Qconcentric [Hecc/Qcon], Hcon/Qecc) is mostly

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Barıs Seven, Gamze Cobanoglu, Deran Oskay and Nevin Atalay-Guzel

assessment and accurate measurement is not possible. Another frequently used evaluation method is with a hand-held dynamometer. However, some specialties of raters such as gender, body weight, and grip strength affect a rater’s reliability in obtaining torque measurements. 6 Isokinetic dynamometers are

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Chris J Durall, George J Davies, Thomas W Kernozek, Mark H Gibson, Dennis CW Fater and J Scott Straker

Context:

It has been hypothesized that the fibers of the infraspinatus and subscapularis superior to the glenohumeral axis of rotation contribute directly to arm elevation.

Objective:

To test this hypothesis by assessing the impact of 5 weeks of concentric isokinetic humeral-rotator training in a modified neutral position on scapular-plane arm-elevation peak torque.

Design:

Prospective, pretest/posttest with control group.

Participants:

24 female and 6 male noninjured college students (N = 30).

Main Outcome Measures:

Scapular-plane-elevation peak torque at 60, 180, and 300°/s.

Results:

Repeated-measures ANOVA indicated no difference in peak torque between groups at any of the angular velocities tested (P < .05)

Conclusions:

5 weeks of concentric isokinetic humeral-rotator training did not significantly increase scapular-plane-elevation peak torque.

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Bryan L. Riemann and George J. Davies

normalization methods, 3 and underlying projection mechanics. 1 Although the test is believed to reflect test limb strength, 1 there have been no assessments determining whether test performance is directly associated with UE strength. Isokinetics is the gold standard for assessing muscular strength in

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Kyle Ebersole

Column-editor : Robert D. Kersey

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Bin Chen, Yichao Zhao, Xianxin Cao, Guojiong Hu, Lincoln B. Chen and Wenxin Niu

shoulder rotators imbalance. 17 – 19 These imbalanced shoulder rotators could not stabilize the humeral head to the center of glenoid, which contributes to increase the risk of impingement. 20 Isokinetic muscle strength testing is commonly used to evaluate eccentric and concentric peak torque of the

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Robert C. Manske and George J. Davies

Context:

Most patients on an index concentric isokinetic test of the shoulder internal and external rotators have significant torque-acceleration-energy (TAE) deficits.

Objective:

To assess the effectiveness of rehabilitation on muscle power in patients with shoulder dysfunctions.

Design:

Prospective, pretest–posttest.

Setting:

Physical therapy clinic.

Participants:

67, mean age 28.7 ± 12.89 years.

Main Outcome Measures:

Concentric shoulder internal and external rotators measured with arm at 90° of abduction, 90° of elbow flexion. Isokinetic velocities tested: 60°, 180°, and 300°/s.

Results:

A paired t test (P < .05) compared the differences from index to discharge test for involved and uninvolved internal and external shoulder rotators. Percentages of TAE deficits involved vs uninvolved on discharge and change in TAE from index to discharge were also analyzed. Significant improvement of the involved shoulder for all velocities for both internal and external rotators was seen. The uninvolved extremity saw statistically significant improvements at all velocities for external rotators yet only at 300°/s for internal rotators. Involved-extremity TAE deficits returned to within 10% on discharge.

Conclusions:

The study demonstrated improved muscle power as measured by TAE in shoulder internal and external rotators in a sample of patients treated in an outpatient clinic.

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Sebastian Klich, Bogdan Pietraszewski, Matteo Zago, Manuela Galli, Nicola Lovecchio and Adam Kawczyński

aims of this study were to investigate (1) SST, (2) AHD, and (3) stiffness/creep of shoulder girdle muscles after an isokinetic fatigue in overhead asymptomatic athletes. We hypothesized that postexercise fatigue in rotator cuff muscles would be the best approach to detect alterations in shoulder

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Hande Guney, Gulcan Harput, Filiz Colakoglu and Gul Baltaci

Context:

Glenohumeral (GH) internal-rotation deficit (GIRD) and lower eccentric external-rotator (ER) to concentric internal-rotator (IR) strength (ER:IR) ratio have been documented as risk factors for shoulder injuries, but there is no information on whether GIRD has an adverse effect on ER:IR ratio in adolescent overhead athletes.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GIRD on functional ER:IR ratio of the adolescent overhead athletes.

Design:

Cross-sectional study.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

52 adolescent overhead athletes.

Main Outcome Measures:

To determine GIRD, the range of GH IR and ER motion was measured with a digital inclinometer. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess eccentric and concentric IR and ER muscle strength of the dominant and nondominant shoulders. One-way ANCOVA where sport type was set as a covariate was used to analyze the difference between athletes with and without GIRD.

Results:

After standardized examinations of all shoulders, the athletes were divided into 2 groups, shoulders with (n = 27) and without GIRD (n = 25). There was a significant difference between groups in functional ER:IR ratio (P < .001). Athletes with GIRD had lower ER:IR ratio (0.56) than athletes without GIRD (0.83).

Conclusions:

As GIRD has an adverse effect on functional ratio of the shoulder-rotator muscles, interventions for adolescent overhead athletes should include improving GH-rotation range of motion.

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Joseph B. Lesnak, Dillon T. Anderson, Brooke E. Farmer, Dimitrios Katsavelis and Terry L. Grindstaff

leg extensor 1RM because of the fear of causing damage to the surgically repaired knee, thus delaying healing. There have been previous attempts to establish methods for predicting an individual’s isotonic quadriceps strength. Methods such as rating of perceived exertion, body weight, isokinetic