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Steven T. McCaw, Jacob K. Gardner, Lindsay N. Stafford and Michael R. Torry

An inverse dynamic analysis and subsequent calculation of joint kinetic and energetic measures is widely used to study the mechanics of the lower extremity. Filtering the kinematic and kinetic data input to the inverse dynamics equations affects the calculated joint moment of force (JMF). Our purpose was to compare selected integral values of sagittal plane ankle, knee, and hip joint kinetics and energetics when filtered and unfiltered GRF data are input to inverse dynamics calculations. Six healthy, active, injury-free university student (5 female, 1 male) volunteers performed 10 two-legged landings. JMFs were calculated after two methods of data filtering. Unfiltered: marker data were filtered at 10 Hz, GRF data unfiltered. Filtered: both GRF and marker data filtered at 10 Hz. The filtering of the GRF data affected the shape of the knee and hip joint moment-time curves, and the ankle, knee and hip joint mechanical power-time curves. We concluded that although the contributions of individual joints to the support moment and to total energy absorption were not affected, the attenuation of high-frequency oscillations in both JMF and JMP time curves will influence interpretation of CNS strategies during landing.

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Scott Bonnette, Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Kim D. Barber Foss, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Jed A. Diekfuss and Gregory D. Myer

), each having a unique effect on the feedback display (see Figures  1B – 1E ): (1) lateral trunk-flexion, (2) knee to hip joint moment of force ratio, (3) knee abduction moment of force, (4) vertical ground reaction force ratio, and (5) foot center of pressure (foot) location. The current values of the

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Dustin R. Grooms, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Jonathan D. Ellis, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Christopher A. DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Brooke Gadd, Kim D. Barber Foss, Weihong Yuan, Paula Silva, Ryan Galloway, Jed A. Diekfuss, James Leach, Kate Berz and Gregory D. Myer

variables (ie, knee abduction moment of force, knee-to-hip joint moment of force ratio, lateral trunk flexion, and vertical ground reaction forces), which was projected in front of the participants during specific exercises (ie, squat, single-leg Romanian deadlift, tuck jumps, etc.). Participants controlled

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Christopher A. DiCesare, Adam W. Kiefer, Scott Bonnette and Gregory D. Myer

force platforms, it is difficult to consistently gather ground reactions forces in the VR condition due to the lack of clean foot strikes on the force platforms. Not having joint moment of force data perhaps increases the difficulty in accurately assessing risk for injuries that are biomechanical in

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Mark L. Latash

activation levels if the task is to match a desired joint moment of force magnitude? This task is redundant because all joints are crossed by several muscles. How does the CNS define digit forces and moments of force for the task of holding motionless an object grasped by the hand? This task is redundant

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Mark L. Latash

of task-related constraints. Examples include using a set of muscles to produce a desired joint moment of force, using a set of hand digits to hold or move an object, using a set of MUs to produce a desired level of muscle activation, etc. So, the question is: How does the CNS organize control to