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John Andrew Badagliacco and Andrew Karduna

have focused on a comparison between pitching and nonpitching shoulders in baseball players. Compared with nonthrowing arms in a passive protocol, deficits were found in the throwing shoulder during a threshold detection task, 20 a joint position sense (JPS) task, 22 and a latent muscle reaction test

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Hiroshi Takasaki, Yu Okubo and Shun Okuyama

Proprioceptive deficits including impaired joint position sense (JPS) are considered to be contributing to impaired neuromuscular control, resulting in functional instability and repetitive injury. 1 Furthermore, impaired JPS is associated with impaired muscle performance, 2 and this combination

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Natalia Romero-Franco, Juan Antonio Montaño-Munuera, Juan Carlos Fernández-Domínguez and Pedro Jiménez-Reyes

These conditions, in which proprioception supports the correct motor control, may facilitate better sports movement 1 or fewer risks of injury. 3 Joint position sense (JPS) is a subcomponent of proprioception that informs about the accuracy and precision of the movement and its relationship with

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Carly May Green, Paul Comfort and Lee Herrington

Context:

A reduction in joint position sense (JPS) is sometimes a consequence of shoulder injury that may adversely affect the ability to maintain dynamic joint stability.

Objective:

To compare shoulder JPS between previously injured and noninjured judokas.

Design:

Cohort study.

Participants:

Twenty-nine noninjured subjects (10.93 ± 3.45 years) and eleven injured subjects (15.09 ± 3.39 years).

Main Outcome Measures:

JPS was tested at 45° and 80°of shoulder external rotation at 90° of abduction.

Results:

No signifcant difference in JPS was found between previously injured and noninjured judokas at either joint position.

Conclusion:

Despite evidence that JPS acuity decreases following shoulder injury, this study did not demonstrate a difference in average error between previously injured and noninjured judokas. Uncontrolled confounding factors, such as age and time since injury, may have affected the results. Sport-specifc shoulder joint loading patterns may also be an important factor that affects JPS.

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Jane LaRiviere and Louis R. Osternig

Ice-induced anesthesia is often used to permit pain-free activity. However, icing before a skilled performance may distort the ability to acknowledge sensory stimuli and may thereby mask certain protective mechanisms. Inadequate peripheral feedback regarding position of a limb in space could expose the joint to injury. This study was designed to determine the effect of ice immersion on ankle joint position sense. Three different pretest conditions of no ice immersion, 5 min of ice immersion, and 20 min of ice immersion were administered to 31 subjects prior to joint angle replication testing with an electrogoniometer. Subjects completed eight repositioning trials (four at each of two test angles) following each condition. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no statistically significant difference between conditions, trials, or angles. The results suggest that joint position receptors in the ankle are resilient to this type of ice treatment, or that the affected receptors (i.e., skin and muscle) were adequately compensated for by other sensors such as joint receptors.

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Joseph E. Szczerba, Julie N. Bernier, David H. Perrin and Bruce M. Gansneder

The purpose of this study was to estimate intertester reliability of active and passive ankle joint position sense measurements in uninjured subjects. Subjects were 10 males and 10 females. Active and passive ankle joint position sense was assessed by two testers. Each subject was positioned supine on a modified examination table with his or her ankle placed in 25° of plantar flexion. Joint position sense (IPS) measurements, on two separate occasions, were recorded in degrees of error from four predetermined test positions. Test order was counterbalanced according to mode (active/passive) and test position. Two trials were performed for each sequence and the average of the two was recorded for analysis. The results revealed that both the active and passive JPS protocols yielded poor to moderate intertester reliability. It was concluded that further research is needed to develop reliable protocols for testing joint position sense of the ankle joint.

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Eric J. Heit, Scott M. Lephart and Susan L. Rozzi

The purpose of this study was to determine the proprioceptive effects of ankle bracing and taping. Proprioception was assessed in 26 subjects by evaluating ankle joint position sense, which was determined by the subjects' ability to actively reproduce a passively positioned joint angle. Testing was performed at positions of 30° of plantar flexion and 15° of inversion. Each subject underwent four trials at each test angle under three conditions: braced, taped, and control. For the plantar flexion test, both the braced condition and the taped condition significantly enhanced joint position sense when compared to the control condition. There was no significant difference between the braced and taped conditions. For the inversion test, the taped condition significantly enhanced joint position sense compared to the control condition. There was no significant difference between the braced and the control conditions or between the braced and the taped conditions. This study demonstrates that ankle bracing and taping improve joint position sense in the stable ankle.

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Yin-Liang Lin and Andrew Karduna

While synchronous movement of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints has been emphasized in previous kinematics studies, most investigations of shoulder joint position sense have treated the shoulder complex as a single joint. The purposes of this study were to investigate the joint position sense errors of the humerothoracic, glenohumeral, and scapulothoracic joints at different elevation angles and to examine whether the errors of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints contribute to the errors of the humerothoracic joint. Fifty-one subjects with healthy shoulders were recruited. Active joint position sense of the humerothoracic, glenohumeral, and scapulothoracic joints was measured at 50°, 70°, and 90° of humerothoracic elevation in the scapular plane. The results showed that while scapulothoracic joint position sense errors were not affected by target angles, there was an angle effect on humerothoracic and glenohumeral errors, with errors decreasing as the target angles approached 90° of elevation. The results of a multiple regression analysis revealed that glenohumeral errors explained most of the variance of the humerothoracic errors and that scapulothoracic errors had a weaker predictive relationship with humerothoracic errors. Therefore, it may be necessary to test scapular joint position sense separately in addition to the assessment of the overall shoulder joint position sense.

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Taner Aydin, Yavuz Yildiz, Cemil Yildiz and Tunç Alp Kalyon

Objective:

To compare the ankle-joint position-sense patterns of gymnasts and nongymnasts.

Design:

Proprioceptive ability was evaluated with active and passive angle-reproduction tests.

Participants:

40 subjects assigned to 2 groups: group 1 (n = 20), healthy subjects, and group 2 (n = 20), teenage female gymnasts.

Measurements:

Joint-position sense was actively measured with a Cybex NORM™ isokinetic dynamometer and passively with a proprioception-testing device.

Results:

A Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the mean values of the gymnasts’ and controls’ ankles. Results revealed statistically significant differences (P < .05) between the 2 groups. No statistically significant difference between the dominant and nondominant ankles in the 2 groups was observed.

Conclusions:

The results suggest that extensive training might affect ankle-joint position sense, but genetics and natural selection could be the reason. It is thought that athletes are able to develop enhanced neurosensory pathways as a result of long-term training.

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Heather D. Hartsell

Context:

The effect of externally bracing chronically unstable ankles on joint position sense awareness has had limited study yet is clinically relevant.

Objective:

To determine active joint position sense awareness, effects of bracing, and differences between flexible and semirigid braces.

Design:

Between-ankle-group (chronic and healthy), repeated-measures, including brace condition for the joint position of 15° inversion from subtalar neutral. Setting: Research laboratory.

Participants:

24 subjects with healthy and 12 with chronically unstable ankles.

Main Outcome Measures:

Blindfolded subjects attempted to find a passively placedjoint position under conditions of unbraced, flexible, and semirigid braced. A 3-way repeated-measures ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test for significant interaction effects were conducted.

Results:

Significant main effects were observed for ankle status, brace, and gender, but no significant interaction effects.

Conclusion:

Chronically unstable ankles have greater error in joint position sense awareness. However, this deficit might be reduced by using an external semirigid brace.