Weight category athletes are known for practicing rapid weight loss before competition weigh-in. After weigh-in, athletes strive to restore euhydration and body mass through food and fluid intake. The aim of the current study was to assess prevalence of hypohydration at competition time among elite athletes’ in four different combat sports, and how water intake and timing of official weigh-in were related to hydration status. Participants were 31 taekwondo practitioners and wrestlers who performed evening weigh-in (EWI) the night before competition day and had thus time for rehydration, and 32 boxers and judokas conducting competition day morning weigh-in (MWI). In total, 32% were female. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured by refractometry on the competition day’s first morning urine sample. Hypohydration was defined as USG ≥1.020 and serious hypohydration as USG > 1.030. Water intake was measured by means of dietary records. The prevalence of hypohydration was 89% in the morning of competition day. Serious hypohydration was also prevalent. This was found in over 50% of MWI athletes and in 42% of the EWI group. A higher water intake, from both fluids and solid foods, in the evening before competition day was not associated with a more favorable hydration status the following morning. In conclusion, neither weigh-in close to competition nor evening weigh-in with more time for rehydration seems to prevent hypohydration before competition.
Stefan Pettersson and Christina M. Berg
Gabriel Rodríguez-Romo, Thomas Yvert, Alfonso de Diego, Catalina Santiago, Alfonso L. Díaz de Durana, Vicente Carratalá, Nuria Garatachea and Alejandro Lucia
The authors compared ACTN3 R577X genotype and allele frequencies in the majority of all-time-best Spanish judo male athletes (n = 108) and 343 ethnically matched nonathletic men. No between-groups differences were found in allele (P = .077) or genotype distributions (P = .178). Thus, the R577X polymorphism was not significantly associated with the status of being an elite judo athlete, at least in the Spanish population. The contribution of genetics to sports-related phenotype traits is undeniable with some genotypes, of which ACTN3 R577X is currently the leading candidate, partly distinguishing individuals predisposed to either endurance or power sports. However, few athletic events can be categorized as purely power or endurance based. Although genetic testing (ie, for ACTN3 R577X) is already being marketed to predict sports talent and potential of young children, its usefulness is still questionable, at least in competitive judo.
A.P. (Karin) de Bruin and Raôul R.D. Oudejans
in their respective sport. More specifically, they participated in gymnastics ( n = 1), dance ( n = 1), track-and-field athletics ( n = 1), cycling ( n = 1), heavyweight and lightweight rowing ( n = 2), and judo ( n = 2). The gymnast, track-and-field athlete, lightweight rower, and one judoka
Seihati A. Shiroma, Ursula F. Julio and Emerson Franchini
. doi:10.1080/24748668.2017.1350489 10.1080/24748668.2017.1350489 4. Gariod L , Favre-Juvin A , Novel V , Reutenauer H , Majean H , Rossi A . Evaluation du profit energetique des judokas par spectroscopie RMN du P31 . Sci Sports . 1995 ; 10 ( 4 ): 201 – 207 . doi:10
Carly May Green, Paul Comfort and Lee Herrington
A reduction in joint position sense (JPS) is sometimes a consequence of shoulder injury that may adversely affect the ability to maintain dynamic joint stability.
To compare shoulder JPS between previously injured and noninjured judokas.
Twenty-nine noninjured subjects (10.93 ± 3.45 years) and eleven injured subjects (15.09 ± 3.39 years).
Main Outcome Measures:
JPS was tested at 45° and 80°of shoulder external rotation at 90° of abduction.
No signifcant difference in JPS was found between previously injured and noninjured judokas at either joint position.
Despite evidence that JPS acuity decreases following shoulder injury, this study did not demonstrate a difference in average error between previously injured and noninjured judokas. Uncontrolled confounding factors, such as age and time since injury, may have affected the results. Sport-specifc shoulder joint loading patterns may also be an important factor that affects JPS.
Nathalie Boisseau, Sonia Vera-Perez and Jacques Poortmans
Judo is a weight-class sport, meaning that there are weight-defined classes in competitions. Regular body weight restrictions and/or nutritional imbalances can alter growth and maturation states in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to estimate to what extent female judo athletes (age 16.1 ± 0.3 years) modified food and drink intakes 3 weeks and 1 week before competition. Our findings indicate that unbalanced dietary intakes and “weight cutting” might occur in female adolescent competitors. We conclude that dietary recommendations are compulsory in order to educate coaches and young judokas about adequate nutrition and safe weight control behaviors, as well as the dangers of rapid weight loss and dehydration during adolescence.
Leandro C. Felippe, João P. Lopes-Silva, Rômulo Bertuzzi, Cian McGinley and Adriano E. Lima-Silva
The combined supplementation of caffeine (CAF) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) may have a potential ergogenic effect during intermittent-exercise tasks such as judo; however, its effect in this sport has not been tested.
To investigate the isolated and combined effects of CAF and NaHCO3 on judo performance.
Ten judokas performed 4 supplementation protocols—NaHCO3, CAF, NaHCO3 + CAF, and placebo (PLA) (cellulose)—followed by 3 Special Judo Fitness Tests (SJFTs) interspaced with 5 min rest.
In the first SJFT, the combined supplement (NaHCO3 + CAF) resulted in a higher number of throws than with PLA (24.4 ± 0.9 and 23.2 ± 1.5 throws, respectively, P = .02). There was no significant difference between conditions for the 2nd SJFT (P = .11). In the 3rd SJFT, NaHCO3 and NaHCO3 + CAF resulted in more throws than with PLA (23.7 ± 1.6, 24.4 ± 1.0, and 22.0 ± 1.6 throws, P = .001 and P = .03, respectively). When the total throws performed in the 3 SJFTs were summed, they were higher than PLA only for NaHCO3 + CAF (68.8 ± 4.4 and 72.7 ± 3.1 throws, respectively, P = .003). Postexercise plasma lactate after each SJFT was higher in all experimental conditions than with PLA (P = .001). There was no significant difference in rating of perceived exertion across the conditions (P = .18).
The results of the current study show that the combined supplementation of NaHCO3 + CAF increases judo performance compared with PLA.
Eliseo Iglesias-Soler, Eduardo Carballeira, Tania Sánchez-Otero, Xian Mayo and Miguel Fernández-del-Olmo
To analyze performance during the execution of a maximum number of repetitions (MNR) in a cluster-set configuration.
Nine judokas performed 2 sessions of parallel squats with a load corresponding to 4-repetition maximum (4RM) with a traditional-training (TT) and cluster-training (CT) set configuration. The TT consisted of 3 sets of repetitions leading to failure and 3 min of rest between sets. In the CT the MNR was performed with a rest interval between repetitions (45.44 ± 11.89 s). The work-to-rest ratio was similar for CT and TT.
MNR in CT was 45.5 ± 32 repetitions and was 9.33 ± 1.87 times the volume in TT. There was a tendency for the average mean propulsive velocity (MPV) to be higher in CT (0.39 ± 0.04 vs 0.36 ± 0.04 m/s for CT and TT, respectively, P = .054, standardized mean difference [d] = 0.57). The average MPV was higher in CT for a similar number of repetitions (0.44 ± 0.08 vs 0.36 ± 0.04 m/s for CT and TT, respectively, P = .006, d = 1.33). The number of repetitions in TT was correlated with absolute 4RM load (r = –.719, P = .031) but not in CT (r = –.273, P = .477).
A cluster-set configuration allows for a higher number of repetitions and improved sustainability of mechanical performance. CT, unlike TT, was not affected by absolute load, suggesting an improvement of training volume with high absolute loads.
Ben-El Berkovich, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet, Aliza Hannah Stark and Tali Sinai
Athletes competing in individual sports such as judo are categorized by weight. Before competitions, weight cutting is common. This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize and determine the prevalence of rapid weight loss (RWL) among adolescent judo competitors. Male athletes aged 12- to 17-years old (N = 108) were recruited from local judo teams. Each participant completed a validated questionnaire regarding RWL practices. Anthropometric measurements were also performed. Average age was 14.6 ± 1.6 years and all participants were of normal body mass index (BMI). RWL was practiced by 80% of the athletes before competition, beginning at an average age of 12.5 ± 2.2 years with the highest prevalence (~94%) in the oldest group of judoka (16–17.9 years). Precompetition weight loss duration was 8 ± 5.4 days, with an average weight reduction of 1.5 ± 1.1 kg. The number of weight loss efforts per athlete in the past season was 2.8 ± 2.2. RWL was achieved by increased physical activity (82.6%), skipped meals (56.3%), or fasting at least once (47%). Two-thirds of the athletes indicated that their coaches were the most influential figure in their decision to lose weight before competition. RWL is highly prevalent in adolescent judo competitors. The methods used by these athletes can potentially lead to significant health risks including compromised nutritional status, diminished physical performance and impaired growth and development. It is of great importance to insure that those who guide young adults in weight loss for competitive sports have the knowledge and understanding to make safe recommendations and appropriate decisions regarding achieving specific weight goals.
Reid Reale, Gregory R. Cox, Gary Slater and Louise M. Burke
We examined the relationship between the regain of body mass (BM) after weigh-in and success in real-life judo competition. Eighty-six (36 females, 50 males) senior judoka volunteered for this observational study of an international judo competition. Subjects were weighed at the official weigh-in and one hour before their first competition fight (15–20 hr later). Regain in BM after weigh-in was compared between medal winners and nonmedalists, winners and losers of each fight, males and females and across weight divisions. Heavyweights were excluded from analysis. Prefight BM was greater than BM at official weigh-in for both males and females, with % BM gains of 2.3 ± 2.0 (p ≤ .0001; ES= 1.59; CI95% [1.63, 2.98]) and 3.1 ± 2.2 (p ≤ .0001; ES = 2.03; CI95% [2.30, 3.89]), respectively. No significant differences were found between weight divisions for post weigh-in BM regain. Differences in post weigh-in BM regain were significantly higher in medal winners than nonmedalists for males and females combined (1.4 ± 0.4% BM; p = .0026; ES= 0.69; CI95% [0.05, 2.34]) and for males alone (1.5 ± 0.6% BM; p = .017; ES= 0.74; CI95% [0.02, 2.64]), but not for females (1.2 ± 0.7% BM; p = .096; ES = 0.58; CI95% [-0.02, 2.31]). Differences in BM regain after weigh-in between winners and losers were significant across all fights (0.9 ± 0.3% BM; p = .0021; ES= 0.43; CI95% [0.31, 1.41]) but not for first round fights (0.8 ± 0.5% BM; p = .1386, ES = 0.38; CI95% [-0.26, 1.86]). Winners showed a greater regain in BM post weigh-in than losers. This may reflect the greater magnitude of the BM loss needed to achieve weigh-in targets which also relates to the experience level of successful athletes.