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Felipe García-Pinillos, Carlos Lago-Fuentes, Pedro A. Latorre-Román, Antonio Pantoja-Vallejo and Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo

considerations. Jumping rope (JR) is a consecutive jump exercise with turning the rope, involving mainly foot muscles and joints, due to the quick rebounds. 11 Therefore, JR might be considered a type of PT for improving power and stiffness, some of the key factors for endurance running performance. 4

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Andrew E. Alstot

Token economies have a long research and applied history within clinical settings and classroom education (Kazdin, 1982). However, despite reported successes in improving physical activity behaviors (Alstot, 2012), research examining token reinforcement implemented specifically in physical education is virtually nonexistent. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a peer-administered token economy on the jump rope behaviors of elementary physical education students. An alternating treatments design was used to assess the effects of the intervention. Participants were alternated between five baseline and five token economy sessions while response differentiation between the two phases was assessed. Results indicated that nine out of ten participants showed an increase in the number of successful jump rope practice trials during token reinforcement sessions as compared with baseline sessions. Based on the results of the study, it was concluded that peer-administered token economies can be useful tools for physical educators.

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Kristin J. Heumann and Pamela D. Swan

Jumping rope (JR) is known to enhance Os Calcis Stiffness Index (OCSI) in postpubertal girls; however the effects in prepubescent girls are unknown.

Purpose:

Qualitative Ultrasound (QUS) indices were compared between competitive JRs (N = 19) and normally active (NA, N = 18) girls 9–12 years old.

Methods:

Heel QUS, height, weight, percent body fat (bioelectrical impedance), and Tanner Sex Stage (self-report) were measured.

Results:

JR were significantly younger and had less body fat than NA (p < .01). No other between group differences were found. OCSI was not different between groups even after correcting for fat mass (p > 0.3). Broadband attenuation (BUA) was correlated with Tanner stage (R > .40; p = .01).

Conclusion:

QUS of the heel bone is more related to pubertal status than to JR participation in young girls. Prepubertal girls who perform high intensity jumping have similar bone quality measures as normally active girls.

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Irem Duzgun, Gul Baltaci, Filiz Colakoglu, Volga Bayrakci Tunay and Derya Ozer

Objective:

To investigate the effect of a 12-wk weighted-jump-rope training program on shoulder strength.

Design:

Pretest to posttest experimental design.

Setting:

University sports physiotherapy laboratory.

Participants:

24 healthy volleyball players age 13-16 y.

Intervention:

Group 1 took weighted-rope training (n = 9), group 2 took unweighted-rope training (n = 8), and group 3 did not train with any specific program (n = 7).

Main Outcome Measures:

Players’ strength determined with an isokinetic dynamometer (Isomed 2000) at 180 and 60°/s on external and internal rotators, supraspinatus peak torque, and total work of the dominant shoulder. Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests were used to determine the difference among the groups.

Results:

At pretraining evaluation, there were no significant differences in the test scores of the isokinetic test of full can and empty can between the groups at 60 and 180°/s. There was no statistically significant difference for 60 and 180°/s between pretraining and posttraining assessment (P > .05) except that total eccentric work increased in groups 1 and 3 but decreased in group 2 at 180°/s during the full can (P < .05). There was no significant difference among the groups between the pretraining and posttraining testing at both 180 and 60°/s for the empty can (P > .05). Internal-rotation values at 60 and 180°/s decreased for both peak torque and total work for all groups. External-rotation peak torque and total work at 60°/s increased for group 1. External-rotation peak torque and total work at 180°/s increased for all groups.

Conclusions:

The results indicate that a jump-rope training program is a good conditioning method for overhead athletes because of its potential benefits to shoulder strength.

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Feng-Tzu Chen, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu, Jen-Hao Liu and Yu-Kai Chang

, regardless of behavior and neuroelectric levels, were seen following multicomponent exercise interventions that involved complex neuromotor movements using a large variety of body parts (e.g., soccer, jumping rope; Chang, Tsai, Chen, & Hung, 2013 ). Beyond investigations of aerobic exercise in general, the

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Dana M. Lis and Keith Baar

containing equal parts of gelatin and HC. One hour later, the subjects were asked to jump rope to stimulate bone collagen synthesis, and after a further 4 hr, blood was drawn to determine the circulating levels of the N-terminal peptide of procollagen (PINP). PINP in the blood primarily represents bone

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David D. Anderson, Ben M. Hillberry, Dorothy Teegarden, William R. Proulx, Connie M. Weaver and Tomoaki Yoshikawa

Bone remodeling as a response to exercise in human subjects is described in the literature, although most studies treat exercise as a qualitative factor contributing to bone remodeling. Quantitative description requires assessment of the mechanical loads on the bones. This work describes a generalized lower extremity model that uses existing musculoskeletal modeling techniques to quantify mechanical variables in the femoral neck during exercise. An endurance exercise program consisting of walking, jogging jumping rope, and weight-training was analyzed. Peak femoral neck cortex stresses and strains were high during jogging and squatting, compared to walking, whereas jumping rope and other weight-training exercises produced peak stresses comparable to or lower than walking. Peak stress and strain rates were significantly higher for walking, jumping rope, and jogging than for weight-training. The model should prove useful for any study investigating a quantitative relationship between exercise and bone remodeling.

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Yong Gao, Haichun Sun, Jie Zhuang, Jian Zhang, Lynda Ransdell, Zheng Zhu and Siya Wang

Background:

This study determined the metabolic equivalents (METs) of several activities typically performed by Chinese youth.

Methods:

Thirty youth (12 years) performed 7 activities that reflected their daily activities while Energy Expenditure (EE) was measured in a metabolic chamber.

Results:

METs were calculated as activity EE divided by participant’s measured resting metabolic rate. A MET value ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 was obtained for sleeping, watching TV, playing computer games, reading and doing homework. Performing radio gymnastics had a MET value of 2.9. Jumping rope at low effort required 3.1 METs. Except for watching TV, METs for other activities in this study were lower than Youth Compendium values.

Conclusions:

The results provide empirical evidence for more accurately assessing EE of activities commonly performed by Chinese youth. This is the first study to determine METs for radio gymnastics and jump rope in Chinese youth.

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Orientations, Situational Motivation and Effort/Persistence in Physical Activity Classes Zan Gao * Leslie William Podlog * Louis Harrison * 7 2012 31 3 246 260 10.1123/jtpe.31.3.246 The Effects of Peer-Administered Token Reinforcement on Jump Rope Behaviors of Elementary Physical Education Students

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* Krista Chandler * 4 2014 22 1 47 53 10.1123/wspaj.2014-0012 Qualitative Ultrasound Comparisons Between Pre-Pubertal Normally Active Girls versus Competitive Jump Rope Participants Kristin J. Heumann * Pamela D. Swan * 4 2014 22 1 54 58 10.1123/wspaj.2014-0002 Other Women in Sport and Physical