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Beatriz B. Gomes, Nuno V. Ramos, Filipe A.V. Conceição, Ross H. Sanders, Mário A.P. Vaz and João Paulo Vilas-Boas

In sprint kayaking the role that paddling technique plays in optimizing paddle forces and resultant kayak kinematics is still unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the magnitude and shape of the paddle force–time curve at different stroke rates, and their implications for kayak performance. Ten elite kayak paddlers (5 males and 5 females) were analyzed while performing 2000-m on-water trials, at 4 different paces (60, 80, and 100 strokes per minute, and race pace). The paddle and kayak were instrumented with strain gauges and accelerometers, respectively. For both sexes, the force–time curves were characterized at training pace by having a bell shape and at race pace by a first small peak, followed by a small decrease in force and then followed by a main plateau. The force profile, represented by the mean force/peak force ratio, became more rectangular with increasing stroke rate (F[3,40] = 7.87, P < .01). To obtain a rectangular shape to maximize performance, kayak paddlers should seek a stronger water phase with a rapid increase in force immediately after blade entry, and a quick exit before the force dropping far below the maximum force. This pattern should be sought when training at race pace and in competition.

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Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova and Anton Arndt

The kayaking stroke is complex and involves upper limb and trunk movements in 3 dimensions combined with coordinated leg movements. Kinematic analyses of elite flat-water paddlers during paddling on a kayak ergometer 1 – 4 and during on-water paddling 4 , 5 have previously been conducted. Upper

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Danny Lum and Abdul Rashid Aziz

Success in sprint kayaking is achieved by covering a specific distance (eg, 200, 500, and 1000 m) in the shortest time possible. The kayak paddling stroke, which includes the catch, pull exit, and recovery phases, involves the coordinated actions of the trunk and the upper- and lower-limb muscles

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Yongming Li, Margot Niessen, Xiaoping Chen and Ulrich Hartmann

The knowledge of relative energy contributions (W AER %) is of theoretical and practical interest for a given sport. 1 A description of this knowledge seems to be imperative for most textbooks on exercise physiology and training science. 2 , 3 Regarding women’s Olympic kayaking (200- and 500-m

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Thiago Oliveira Borges, Nicola Bullock, David Aitken, Gregory R. Cox and Aaron J. Coutts

In high-performance sprint kayak settings, laboratory tests are commonly used to track changes in fitness and performance. 1 Even though commercially available kayak ergometers have been designed to replicate the specific technical demands of kayaking, the metabolic demands of the different

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Cruz Hogan, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew Doyle, Leanne Lester and Peter Peeling

Flat-water sprint kayak athletes require highly developed aerobic and anaerobic energy systems to be competitive across each of the 200-, 500-, and 1000-m Olympic distance events. 1 – 3 Consequently, the classification of training intensity into well-defined training zones has become common

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Darren Steeves, Leo J. Thornley, Joshua A. Goreham, Matthew J. Jordan, Scott C. Landry and Jonathon R. Fowles

Flat-water sprint kayaking over 200 m is a timed cyclical event with large upper-body physical demands. 1 – 5 Paddlers must generate high levels of sustained muscle power during each stroke from the catch phase to the exit phase to maximize boat acceleration and minimize deceleration. 2 , 6 A

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Chelsie E. Winchcombe, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew M. Doyle, Cruz Hogan and Peter Peeling

Flat-water sprint kayaking is an Olympic sport contested over 200 and 500 m for women and 200, 500, and 1000 m for men. Research has shown that a high level of aerobic power and anaerobic capacity is required for success across all race distances. 1 – 3 Accordingly, the performance of elite

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Jon L. Weller

canoes and kayaks that would take them out on the water to race, to camp, and to pit themselves against whitewater. While these boats were taking shape, those who were gathering together were building something else, as well. During this time, the foundations for the modern sport of recreational paddling

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Myriam Paquette, François Bieuzen and François Billaut

In sprint canoe–kayak, Olympic individual events are 200 and 500 m (∼38 to ∼120 s) for women and 200 and 1000 m (∼34 to ∼220 s) for men. Using the accumulated oxygen deficit method, aerobic contribution in highly trained to international-level canoe–kayak athletes has been estimated to be ∼37%, ∼64