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Geoff Lovell and Mike Lauder


Anecdotal evidence suggests a relationship between strength imbalances and injury incidence.


To examine the relationship between bilateral strength imbalance and incidence of injury.

Participants and Design:

Thirty national- or international-standard flatwater kayakers were classified as noninjured, trunk injured, or upper-limb injured based on the number of days lost from training over the last 6 months. Bilateral strength imbalance was measured using a kayak ergometer, producing data for peak force and force impulse for each side of each stroke. Bilateral strength imbalance was then compared between the noninjured, trunk-injured, and upper-limb-injured groups by means of 2 one-way ANOVAs. No participants reported training days lost through lower-limb injury.


A significantly elevated bilateral peak-force strength imbalance was observed between the upper-limb-injured and the noninjured groups.


These data support the existence of a relationship between strength imbalance and incidence of injury.

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Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova and Anton Arndt

The kayaking stroke is complex and involves upper limb and trunk movements in 3 dimensions combined with coordinated leg movements. Kinematic analyses of elite flat-water paddlers during paddling on a kayak ergometer 1 – 4 and during on-water paddling 4 , 5 have previously been conducted. Upper

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Danny Lum and Abdul Rashid Aziz

Success in sprint kayaking is achieved by covering a specific distance (eg, 200, 500, and 1000 m) in the shortest time possible. The kayak paddling stroke, which includes the catch, pull exit, and recovery phases, involves the coordinated actions of the trunk and the upper- and lower-limb muscles

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Yongming Li, Margot Niessen, Xiaoping Chen and Ulrich Hartmann

The knowledge of relative energy contributions (W AER %) is of theoretical and practical interest for a given sport. 1 A description of this knowledge seems to be imperative for most textbooks on exercise physiology and training science. 2 , 3 Regarding women’s Olympic kayaking (200- and 500-m

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Thiago Oliveira Borges, Nicola Bullock, David Aitken, Gregory R. Cox and Aaron J. Coutts

In high-performance sprint kayak settings, laboratory tests are commonly used to track changes in fitness and performance. 1 Even though commercially available kayak ergometers have been designed to replicate the specific technical demands of kayaking, the metabolic demands of the different

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Cruz Hogan, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew Doyle, Leanne Lester and Peter Peeling

Flat-water sprint kayak athletes require highly developed aerobic and anaerobic energy systems to be competitive across each of the 200-, 500-, and 1000-m Olympic distance events. 1 – 3 Consequently, the classification of training intensity into well-defined training zones has become common

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Darren Steeves, Leo J. Thornley, Joshua A. Goreham, Matthew J. Jordan, Scott C. Landry and Jonathon R. Fowles

Flat-water sprint kayaking over 200 m is a timed cyclical event with large upper-body physical demands. 1 – 5 Paddlers must generate high levels of sustained muscle power during each stroke from the catch phase to the exit phase to maximize boat acceleration and minimize deceleration. 2 , 6 A

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Chelsie E. Winchcombe, Martyn J. Binnie, Matthew M. Doyle, Cruz Hogan and Peter Peeling

Flat-water sprint kayaking is an Olympic sport contested over 200 and 500 m for women and 200, 500, and 1000 m for men. Research has shown that a high level of aerobic power and anaerobic capacity is required for success across all race distances. 1 – 3 Accordingly, the performance of elite

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Myriam Paquette, François Bieuzen and François Billaut

In sprint canoe–kayak, Olympic individual events are 200 and 500 m (∼38 to ∼120 s) for women and 200 and 1000 m (∼34 to ∼220 s) for men. Using the accumulated oxygen deficit method, aerobic contribution in highly trained to international-level canoe–kayak athletes has been estimated to be ∼37%, ∼64

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Ken A. van Someren and Glyn Howatson


To determine the relative importance of anthropometric and physiological attributes for performance in the 1000-m, 500-m, and 200-m flatwater kayaking events.


Eighteen competitive male kayakers completed performance trials over the 3 distances and a battery of anthropometric and physiological tests.


Performance times (mean ± SD) for 1000 m, 500 m, and 200 m were 262.56 ± 36.44 s, 122.10 ± 5.74 s, and 41.59 ± 2.12 s, respectively. Performance in all 3 events was correlated with a number of physiological parameters; in addition, 500-m and 200-m performance was correlated with upper body dimensions. 1000-m time was predicted by power output at lactate turnpoint expressed as a percentage of maximal aerobic power, work done in a 30-s ergometry test and work done in a 2-min ergometry test (adjusted R 2 = 0.71, SEE = 5.72 s); 500-m time was predicted by work done and the fatigue index in a 30-s ergometry test, work done in a 2-min ergometry test, peak isometric and isokinetic function (adjusted R 2 = 0.79, SEE = 2.49 s); 200-m time was predicted by chest circumference, humeral breadth, peak power, work done, and the fatigue index in a 30-s ergometry test (adjusted R 2 = 0.71, SEE = 0.71 s).


A number of physiological variables are correlated with performance in all events. 1000-m, 500-m, and 200-m times were predicted with a standard error of only 2.2%, 2.0%, and 1.7%, respectively.