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Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans and Kieran Clarke

ketone drinks has grown ( Egan & D’Agostino, 2016 ). These drinks rapidly increase blood ketone concentrations to achieve ketosis (blood d -βHB >0.5 mM) without dietary modification ( Stubbs et al., 2017 ). Two classes of exogenous ketone compounds exist: ketone esters and ketone salts (KS). Ketone

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Hunter S. Waldman, Brandon D. Shepherd, Brendan Egan and Matthew J. McAllister

performance during exercise through various interventions is continuing to garner attention from high-performing populations. To date, exogenous ketone supplements are available in two principal forms, ketone salts (KSs) and ketone esters. The former are generally racemic and thereby contain varying

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

palmitate (i.e., 16.13 ATP/mole per C 2 unit), fat utilization declines from moderate- to high-intensity exercise ( Achten et al., 2002 ), whereas absolute KB utilization increases ( Cox et al., 2016 ). The ingestion of ketone esters has also been shown to attenuate carbohydrate utilization as demonstrated

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

, H. , Impey , S.G. , & Clarke , K. ( 2017 ). A ketone ester drink increases postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis in humans . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 49 ( 9 ), 1789 – 1795 . PubMed ID: 28398950 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001292 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001292 Howley , P

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Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

frequently report that mental clarity is maintained better during prolonged exercise in the keto-adapted state ” ( Volek et al., 2015 , p. 4) cannot be sufficient to provide evidence for the use of ketones, ketone ester drinks, or keto-adapted diets as possible nutritional interventions to influence mental

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

supplements with distinct characteristics (e.g., the taste of ketone ester) or distinct effects (e.g., B-alanine and tingling, caffeine and increased heart rate, creatine loading and weight gain). Poststudy information regarding athlete beliefs around the treatment received can check the success of blinding