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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

. , Ashmore , T. , Willerton , K. , Evans , R. , Smith , A. , . . . Clarke , K. ( 2016 ). Nutritional ketosis alters fuel preference and thereby endurance performance in athletes . Cell Metabolism, 24 ( 2 ), 256 – 268 . PubMed ID: 27475046 doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2016.07.010 10.1016/j.cmet.2016

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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

protein after the first session did not significantly affect this increase in fat oxidation, whereas maltodextrin intake somewhat attenuated the increase in fat oxidation during the second bout. Both PRO and CHO intake increased blood insulin levels and attenuated the postexercise ketosis seen after

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Grant M. Tinsley and Darryn S. Willoughby

Low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate diets are often used as weight-loss strategies by exercising individuals and athletes. Very-low-carbohydrate diets can lead to a state of ketosis, in which the concentration of blood ketones (acetoacetate, 3-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) increases as a result of increased fatty acid breakdown and activity of ketogenic enzymes. A potential concern of these ketogenic diets, as with other weight-loss diets, is the potential loss of fat-free mass (e.g., skeletal muscle). On examination of the literature, the majority of studies report decreases in fat-free mass in individuals following a ketogenic diet. However, some confounding factors exist, such as the use of aggressive weight-loss diets and potential concerns with fat-free mass measurement. A limited number of studies have examined combining resistance training with ketogenic diets, and further research is needed to determine whether resistance training can effectively slow or stop the loss of fat-free mass typically seen in individuals following a ketogenic diet. Mechanisms underlying the effects of a ketogenic diet on fat-free mass and the results of implementing exercise interventions in combination with this diet should also be examined.

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Brianna J. Stubbs, Pete J. Cox, Tom Kirk, Rhys D. Evans and Kieran Clarke

ketone drinks has grown ( Egan & D’Agostino, 2016 ). These drinks rapidly increase blood ketone concentrations to achieve ketosis (blood d -βHB >0.5 mM) without dietary modification ( Stubbs et al., 2017 ). Two classes of exogenous ketone compounds exist: ketone esters and ketone salts (KS). Ketone

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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

CHO to avoid sustained ketosis. • Typical intake = 15–20% energy from CHO (<2.5 g −1 ·kg −1 ·day −1 ), 15–20% protein, 60–65% fat in combination with a moderate-endurance training volume (>5 hr/week). • Deprivation of CHO for muscle fuel needs while consuming high amounts of dietary fat causes

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

moderate protein intake (<∼2 g/kg BM) to achieve chronic ketosis requires the elimination of many staple foods from the standard Western diet (e.g., most fruit, starchy vegetables and legumes, cereal products) and restrictions on the serving sizes of others. For example, there are portion limits on meats

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Andrzej Gawrecki, Aleksandra Araszkiewicz, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Grzegorz Biegański, Jan Konarski, Katarzyna Domaszewska, Arkadiusz Michalak, Bogda Skowrońska, Anna Adamska, Dariusz Naskręt, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot, Agnieszka Szypowska, Tomasz Klupa and Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz

activity among diabetic patients, it was very important to develop safety rules for players during a mass sports event. The most important goal for medical care was to avoid decompensation of diabetes, that is, severe hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia with ketosis. A greater risk of ketoacidosis occurs in

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

% energy from CHO to prevent ketosis while reducing CHO intake to levels below the fuel costs of daily training) and the more restrictive ketogenic LCHF diet (K-LCHF: typically <50 g/day CHO and 75–80% fat; Burke et al., 2018 ). However, studies have shown that as little as 5 days of exposure to HFLC

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Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

nutritional ketosis on cognitive outcomes in mild to moderate AD and in mild cognitive impairment. While this effect may be attributable in part to correction of hyperinsulinemia, other mechanisms associated with ketosis, such as reduced inflammation and enhanced energy metabolism, also may have contributed

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(0.4[0.2–1.0]) ( P  = .008) and between PR2 (0.4[0.2–1.0]) and the marathon (0.1[0–0.3]) ( P  = .008). There was no severe hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia with ketosis at any time before, during and after the PRs and Marathon. Conclusions.— To avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia, it is necessary to reduce usual doses