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Christopher Napier, Christopher L. MacLean, Jessica Maurer, Jack E. Taunton, and Michael A. Hunt

However, in a clinical setting, it is not always feasible to provide real-time feedback of ground reaction force variables due to constraints on equipment, costs, and analytic methods. Fortunately, many kinematic variables can be measured and modified in a clinical setting using 3-dimensional motion

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Christian A. Clermont, Sean T. Osis, Angkoon Phinyomark, and Reed Ferber

Research has shown that certain homogeneous subgroups demonstrate distinct kinematic patterns in running. For example, running patterns have been reported in subgroups related to sex, 1 – 3 running mileage, 4 foot strike patterns, 5 – 9 and running economy. 10 – 12 Running economy is often

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Alexander Nazareth, Nicole M. Mueske, and Tishya A.L. Wren

This study aimed to determine the effect of tibia marker placement on walking kinematics in children with pathological gait. Three-dimensional lower extremity gait data were collected using both a traditional tibia wand (protruding laterally from the distal shank) and a tibia crest marker on 25 children with pathological gait. Kinematic variables during walking and quiet standing were calculated using each marker and the “Plug-in Gait” implementation of the conventional gait model. For walking, average differences in kinematics between tibia markers ranged from 0.1° to 1.9° at the knee and ankle, except in the transverse plane where differences were 6.0° to 7.2°. No significant differences were found during quiet standing, indicating that differences in kinematics derive primarily from dynamic sources, which likely affect the tibia wand more than the tibia crest marker. These results suggest that the tibia crest marker can be used in place of the traditional tibia wand in clinical gait analysis.

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Iain Hannah, Andy Harland, Dan Price, Heiko Schlarb, and Tim Lucas

A dynamic finite element model of a shod running footstrike was developed and driven with 6 degree of freedom foot segment kinematics determined from a motion capture running trial. Quadratic tetrahedral elements were used to mesh the footwear components with material models determined from appropriate mechanical tests. Model outputs were compared with experimental high-speed video (HSV) footage, vertical ground reaction force (GRF), and center of pressure (COP) excursion to determine whether such an approach is appropriate for the development of athletic footwear. Although unquantified, good visual agreement to the HSV footage was observed but significant discrepancies were found between the model and experimental GRF and COP readings (9% and 61% of model readings outside of the mean experimental reading ± 2 standard deviations, respectively). Model output was also found to be highly sensitive to input kinematics with a 120% increase in maximum GRF observed when translating the force platform 2 mm vertically. While representing an alternative approach to existing dynamic finite element footstrike models, loading highly representative of an experimental trial was not found to be achievable when employing exclusively kinematic boundary conditions. This significantly limits the usefulness of employing such an approach in the footwear development process.

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Christopher A. Zirker, Bradford C. Bennett, and Mark F. Abel

We examined how the application of a forward horizontal force applied at the waist alters the metabolic cost, kinematics, and external work of gait. Horizontal assist forces of 4%, 8% and 12% of a subject’s body weight were applied via our testing apparatus while subjects walked at comfortable walking speed on a level treadmill. Kinematic and metabolic parameters were measured using motion capture and ergospirometry respectively on a group of 10 healthy male subjects. Changes in kinematic and metabolic parameters were quantified and found similar to walking downhill at varying grades. A horizontal assist force of 8% resulted in the greatest reduction of metabolic cost. Changes in recovery factor, external work, and center of mass (COM) movement did not correlate with changes in metabolic rate and therefore were not driving the observed reductions in cost. The assist force may have performed external work by providing propulsion as well as raising the COM as it pivots over the stance leg. Assist forces may decrease metabolic cost by reducing the concentric work required for propulsion while increasing the eccentric work of braking. These findings on the effects of assist forces suggest novel mobility aids for individuals with gait disorders and training strategies for athletes.

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Tiago M. Barbosa, Jorge E. Morais, Mário J. Costa, José Goncalves, Daniel A. Marinho, and António J. Silva

The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CD a). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CD a). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F = 53.680; P < .001), followed by the dv (F = 28.506; P < .001), CD a (F = 21.025; P < .001), S (F = 6.297; P < .01) and v (F = 5.375; P = .01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CD a (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers’ profiles.

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Kelly de Jesus, Karla de Jesus, Pedro A. Figueiredo, Pedro Gonçalves, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, and Ricardo J. Fernandes

We aimed to analyze the effects of fatigue on kinematical parameters during submaximal and maximal butterfly. Seven female swimmers performed two randomized 100-m butterfly bouts, at submaximal velocity and at maximal velocity in 25-m pool. During the 1st and 4th laps of each 100 m, kinematic data were recorded by two video cameras (above and below water) on the sagittal plane. Velocity, stroke length, stroke frequency, intracyclic horizontal velocity variation, horizontal and vertical displacements of the hand and foot and stroke phases’ duration were computed for each stroke cycle. Velocity, stroke length, stroke frequency were lower for 4th than 1st lap, at both intensities. Dropped elbow and foot vertical amplitude of 1st and 2nd downbeats were higher for 4th than 1st lap, at both intensities. At submaximal and maximal intensity, swimmers spent more time during push and recovery phases. At submaximal intensity, swimmers experienced fewer difficulties to cope with fatigue between 1st and 4th lap, which allowed the maintenance of intracyclic velocity variation. However, at maximal intensity, swimmers were probably more fatigued and, as a consequence, less mechanically efficient, showing an increase in intracyclic velocity variation.

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J. Sinclair, J. Isherwood, and P.J. Taylor

Chronic injuries are a common complaint in recreational runners. Foot orthoses have been shown to be effective for the treatment of running injuries but their mechanical effects are still not well understood. This study aims to examine the influence of orthotic intervention on multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain during running. Fifteen male participants ran at 4.0 m·s−1 with and without orthotics. Multisegment foot kinematics and plantar fascia strain were obtained during the stance phase and contrasted using paired t tests. Relative coronal plane range of motion of the midfoot relative to the rearfoot was significantly reduced with orthotics (1.0°) compared to without (2.2°). Similarly, relative transverse plane range of motion was significantly lower with orthotics (1.1°) compared to without (1.8°). Plantar fascia strain did not differ significantly between orthotic (7.1) and nonorthotic (7.1) conditions. This study shows that although orthotics did not serve to reduce plantar fascia strain, they are able to mediate reductions in coronal and transverse plane rotations of the midfoot.

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Karl Fullam, Brian Caulfield, Garrett F. Coughlan, and Eamonn Delahunt


The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and the Y-Balance Test (YBT) have 3 common reach directions: anterior (ANT), posteromedial (PM), and posterolateral (PL). Previous research has indicated that reach-distance performance on the ANT reach direction of the SEBT differs from that on the YBT. Kinematic patterns associated with the ANT reach direction of the SEBT and YBT need to be investigated to fully understand this difference, along with the PM and PL reach directions, to deduce any kinematic discrepancies between the 2 balance tests.


To compare and contrast the kinematic patterns associated with test performance on the reach directions common to the SEBT and YBT.


Controlled laboratory study.


University laboratory.


15 healthy male (age 23.33 ± 2.02 y, height 1.77 ± 0.04 m, body mass 80.00 ± 9.03 kg) and 14 healthy female (age 21.14 ± 1.66 y, height 1.63 ± 0.06 m, body mass 59.58 ± 7.61 kg) volunteers.


Each participant performed 3 trials of the ANT, PM, and PL reach directions of the SEBT and YBT on their dominant leg.

Main Outcome Measures:

Sagittal-plane lower-limb kinematic profiles were recorded using a 3-D motion-analysis system. Reach distances were also recorded for each reach direction.


A significant main effect (P < .05) was observed for test condition with participants reaching farther on the ANT reach direction of the SEBT compared with the YBT. While reaching in the ANT direction participants were characterized by a more flexed position of the hip joint at the point of maximum reach on the YBT (27.94° ± 13.84°) compared with the SEBT (20.37° ± 18.64°).


Based on these observed results, the authors conclude that test performance on the SEBT and YBT differ in terms of dynamic neuromuscular demands, as evidenced by differences in reach distances achieved in the ANT reach direction and associated test kinematic profile.

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Jonathan R. Kusins, Ryan Willing, Graham J.W. King, and Louis M. Ferreira

A computational elbow joint model was developed with a main goal of providing complimentary data to experimental results. The computational model was developed and validated using an experimental elbow joint phantom consisting of a linked total joint replacement. An established in-vitro motion simulator was used to actively flex/extend the experimental elbow in multiple orientations. Muscle forces predicted by the computational model were similar to the experimental model in 4 out of the 5 orientations with errors less than 7.5 N. Valgus angle kinematics were in agreement with differences less than 2.3°. In addition, changes in radial head length, a clinically relevant condition following elbow reconstruction, were simulated in both models and compared. Both lengthening and shortening of the radial head prosthesis altered muscle forces by less than 3.5 N in both models, and valgus angles agreed within 1°. The computational model proved valuable in cross validation with the experimental model, elucidating important limitations in the in-vitro motion simulator’s controller. With continued development, the computational model can be a complimentary tool to experimental studies by providing additional noninvasive outcome measurements.