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Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts and Martin G. Edwards

herself on television) and internal visual imagery (IVI) perspective (where the imaginer looks out through his or her own eyes while performing the action). The kinesthetic imagery (KIN) modality is defined as how it feels to perform an action and includes aspects such as the force and effort involved in

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Lew Hardy and Nichola Callow

Three experiments examined the relative efficacy of different imagery perspectives on the performance of tasks in which form was important. In Experiment 1,25 experienced karateists learned a new kata using either external or internal visual imagery or stretching. Results indicated that external visual imagery was significantly more effective than internal visual imagery, which was significantly more effective than stretching. In Experiment 2, 40 sport science students learned a simple gymnastics floor routine under one of four conditions: external or internal visual imagery with or without kinesthetic imagery. Results revealed a significant main effect for visual imagery perspective (external visual imagery was best) but no effect for kinesthetic imagery. Experiment 3 employed the same paradigm as Experiment 2 but with high-ability rock climbers performing difficult boulder problems. Results showed significant main effects for both visual imagery perspective (external visual imagery was best) and kinesthetic imagery. The findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive processes that might underlie imagery effects.

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Ross Roberts, Nichola Callow, Lew Hardy, David Markland and Joy Bringer

The purpose of this research was to amend the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ; Isaac, Marks, & Russell, 1986) in line with contemporary imagery modality and perspective conceptualizations, and to test the validity of the amended questionnaire (i.e., the VMIQ-2). Study 1 had 351 athletes complete the 3-factor (internal visual imagery, external visual imagery, and kinesthetic imagery) 24-item VMIQ-2. Following single-factor confirmatory factor analyses and item deletion, a 12-item version was subject to correlated traits / correlated uniqueness (CTCU) analysis. An acceptable fit was revealed. Study 2 used a different sample of 355 athletes. The CTCU analysis confirmed the factorial validity of the 12-item VMIQ-2. In Study 3, the concurrent and construct validity of the VMIQ-2 was supported. Taken together, the results of the 3 studies provide preliminary support for the revised VMIQ-2 as a psychometrically valid questionnaire.

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Brian D. Seiler, Eva V. Monsma and Roger D. Newman-Norlund

This study extended motor imagery theories by establishing specificity and verification of expected brain activation patterns during imagery. Eighteen female participants screened with the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3) as having good imagery abilities were scanned to determine the neural networks active during an arm rotation task. Four experimental conditions (i.e., KINESTHETIC, INTERNAL Perspective, EXTERNAL Perspective, and REST) were randomly presented (counterbalanced for condition) during three brain scans. Behaviorally, moderate interscale correlations were found between the MIQ-3 and Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2, indicating relatedness between the questionnaires. Partially confirming our hypotheses, common and distinct brain activity provides initial biological validation for imagery abilities delineated in the MIQ-3: kinesthetic imagery activated motor-related areas, internal visual imagery activated inferior parietal lobule, and external visual imagery activated temporal, but no occipital areas. Lastly, inconsistent neuroanatomical intraindividual differences per condition were found. These findings relative to recent biological evidence of imagery abilities are highlighted.

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Craig R. Hall, Wendy M. Rodgers and Kathryn A. Barr

The use of imagery by athletes was assessed by administering a 37-item questionnaire to a sample of 381 male and female participants from six sports. The sample comprised competitors in the sports of football, ice hockey, soccer, squash, gymnastics, and figure skating. Athletes reported using imagery more in conjunction with competition than with practice. The motivational function of imagery was found to be important, but no substantial differences were evident between how athletes employ visual and kinesthetic imagery or how they use internal and external imagery perspectives. Athletes also indicated that they do not have very structured or regular imagery sessions. The level at which athletes were competing (recreational/house league, local competitive, provincial competitive, national/international competitive) was found to influence imagery use. The higher the competitive level, the more often the athletes reported using imagery in practice, in competition, and before an event.

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Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, Nikos Ntoumanis, Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Richard Ramsey and Craig Hall

This research validated and extended the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997). Study 1 (N = 400) examined the MIQ-R’s factor structure via multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis. The questionnaire was then modified in Study 2 (N = 370) to separately assess the ease of imaging external visual imagery and internal visual imagery, as well as kinesthetic imagery (termed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3; MIQ-3). Both Studies 1 and 2 found that a correlated-traits correlated-uniqueness model provided the best fit to the data, while displaying gender invariance and no significant differences in latent mean scores across gender. Study 3 (N = 97) demonstrated the MIQ-3’s predictive validity revealing the relationships between imagery ability and observational learning use. Findings highlight the method effects that occur by assessing each type of imagery ability using the same four movements and demonstrate that better imagers report greater use of observational learning.

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Nicole Westlund Stewart and Craig Hall

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week CG imagery intervention on strategic decision-making in curling. A secondary purpose was to determine whether curlers’ imagery ability and CG imagery use would be improved. Eleven varsity curlers from a Canadian postsecondary institution engaged in weekly guided imagery sessions that were held at the curling club before their regularly scheduled team practices. Curlers’ response times on a computerized curling strategy assessment significantly improved from baseline to post-intervention (p < .05). In addition, their kinesthetic imagery ability, CG imagery use, and MG-M imagery use significantly increased (p < .05). These results suggest that when curlers are exposed to new scenarios, they learn to store, process, and retrieve relevant information quicker (Simon & Chase, 1973). From a practical standpoint, CG imagery training can improve curlers’ strategy performance, including their ability to use various strategies in game situations.

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E. Dean Ryan and Jeff Simons

To investigate the mental imagery aspect of mental rehearsal, 80 male traffic officers from the California Highway Patrol learned a novel balancing task during a single session. Based on a pretest questionnaire, subjects were categorized as imagers, nonimagers, or occasional imagers and assigned to one of six groups accordingly: imagers asked to use imagery in mental rehearsal, imagers asked to try not to use imagery, nonimagers asked not to use imagery, nonimagers asked to try to use imagery, physical practice, or no practice. It was hypothesized that a person's preferred cognitive style would prove most effective for use in mental rehearsal and that using another style would cause a decrement in learning. Improvement scores indicated no differences between subjects who initially reported typically using imagery and those reported typically not using it, but groups asked to use imagery in mental rehearsal were superior to those asked not to (p<.001). Overall, physical practice was better than the grouped mental rehearsal conditions, and both were better than no practice. Subjects reporting strong visual imagery were superior to those with weak visual images (p<.03), and those reporting strong kinesthetic imagery were superior to those with weak kinesthetic images (p<.03). Regardless of one's typical cognitive style, the use of vivid imagery appears quite important for enhancement of motor performance through mental rehearsal.

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* Nathalie Aelterman * Leen Haerens * Bart Soenens * 03 06 2017 02 2017 39 1 67 80 10.1123/jsep.2015-0326 jsep.2015-0326 Kinesthetic Imagery Provides Additive Benefits to Internal Visual Imagery on Slalom Task Performance Nichola Callow * Dan Jiang * Ross Roberts * Martin G. Edwards * 03 06

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Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Eric Joblet, Emmanuel Roublot and Guillaume R. Coudevylle

performing a movement) modes are most commonly used to generate images. Internal visual imagery has been found to be more effective than external visual and kinesthetic imagery in tasks relying on perceptual information, such as slalom task or sport situations toward targets, and facilitates the integration