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Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts, and Martin G. Edwards

Research examining the effects of imagery on the acquisition and execution of motor performance has delineated imagery into modalities and perspectives. This delineation includes visual and kinesthetic sensory modalities (e.g., Fourkas, Avenanti, Urgesi, & Aglioti, 2006 ; Guillot et al., 2009

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Nikolaos K. Chrysagis, Emmanouil K. Skordilis, Dimitra Koutsouki, and Elizabeth Evans

The purpose was to examine the differences in kinesthetic ability, at the elbow joint, between children with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) spastic hemiplegia. The Kin Com 125 AP isokinetic dynamometer Configuration Chattanooga was used. Results revealed significant (p < .05) interaction between participant groups and side which was a repeated measures factor (nonaffected side for CP group and dominant side for nonCP group vs. affected side for CP and nondominant side for nonCP group) with respect to the passive reproduction of movement (PRM) and detection of passive movement (DPM). The interaction was attributed to the kinesthetic deficits of the hemiplegic participants compared to the control group. A significant relationship was found between the level of spasticity and PRM scores.

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David I. Anderson

our human perspective from our picture of the world must lead to absurdity” ( 1962 , p. 3). The current literature on embodied cognition provides numerous examples of the contribution that physical activity and personal kinesthetic experience make to psychological functioning, psychological

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Melissa L. Grim, Angela Mickle, and Michael L. Grim

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Erianne A. Weight, Molly Harry, and Heather Erwin

are to encourage student physical activity without losing instructional time; thus, this study was grounded in 2 veins of literature: kinesthetic learning theory 40 and the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) created by the Center for Disease Control. 41 Kinesthetic research

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Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell, and Ali Brian

executive functioning skills may be warranted. The purpose of this study is to examine if the evidence-based gross motor intervention, Successful Kinesthetic Instruction for Preschoolers (SKIP; Brian, Goodway, Logan, & Sutherland, 2017a ; Goodway & Branta, 2003 ), also improves young children’s executive

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Scott M. Lephart, Mininder S. Kocher, Freddie H. Fu, Paul A. Borsa, and Christopher D. Harner

Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is thought to disrupt joint afferent sensation and result in proprioceptive deficits. This investigation examined proprioception following ACL reconstruction. Using a proprioceptive testing device designed for this study, kinesthetic awareness was assessed by measuring the threshold to detect passive motion in 12 active patients, who were 11 to 26 months post-ACL reconstruction, using arthroscopic patellar tendon autograft (n=6) or allograft (n=6) techniques. Results revealed significantly decreased kinesthetic awareness in the ACL reconstructed knee versus the uninvolved knee at the near-terminal range of motion and enhanced kinesthetic awareness in the ACL reconstructed knee with the use of a neoprene orthotic. Kinesthesia was enhanced in the near-terminal range of motion for both the ACL reconstructed knee and the contralateral uninvolved knee. No significant between-group differences were observed with autograft and allograft techniques.

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Lew Hardy and Nichola Callow

Three experiments examined the relative efficacy of different imagery perspectives on the performance of tasks in which form was important. In Experiment 1,25 experienced karateists learned a new kata using either external or internal visual imagery or stretching. Results indicated that external visual imagery was significantly more effective than internal visual imagery, which was significantly more effective than stretching. In Experiment 2, 40 sport science students learned a simple gymnastics floor routine under one of four conditions: external or internal visual imagery with or without kinesthetic imagery. Results revealed a significant main effect for visual imagery perspective (external visual imagery was best) but no effect for kinesthetic imagery. Experiment 3 employed the same paradigm as Experiment 2 but with high-ability rock climbers performing difficult boulder problems. Results showed significant main effects for both visual imagery perspective (external visual imagery was best) and kinesthetic imagery. The findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive processes that might underlie imagery effects.

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Christopher A. Knight, Adam R. Marmon, and Dhiraj H. Poojari

Subjects learned to produce brief isometric force pulses that were 10% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. Subjects became proficient at performing sets of 10 pulses within boundaries of 8–12% MVC, with visual feedback and without (kinesthetic sense). In both the control (Con, n = 10) and experimental (Exp, n = 20) groups, subjects performed two sets of 10 kinesthetically guided pulses. Subjects then either performed a 10-s MVC (Exp) or remained at rest (Con) between sets. Following the MVC, Exp subjects had force errors of +30%, whereas performance was maintained in Con. There was evidence for both muscular and neural contributions to these errors. Postactivation potentiation resulted in a 40% gain in muscle contractility (p = .003), and there was a 26% increase in the neural stimulation of muscle (p = .014). Multiple regression indicated that the change in neural input had a stronger relationship with force errors than the increased contractility.

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Brian D. Seiler, Eva V. Monsma, and Roger D. Newman-Norlund

This study extended motor imagery theories by establishing specificity and verification of expected brain activation patterns during imagery. Eighteen female participants screened with the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3) as having good imagery abilities were scanned to determine the neural networks active during an arm rotation task. Four experimental conditions (i.e., KINESTHETIC, INTERNAL Perspective, EXTERNAL Perspective, and REST) were randomly presented (counterbalanced for condition) during three brain scans. Behaviorally, moderate interscale correlations were found between the MIQ-3 and Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2, indicating relatedness between the questionnaires. Partially confirming our hypotheses, common and distinct brain activity provides initial biological validation for imagery abilities delineated in the MIQ-3: kinesthetic imagery activated motor-related areas, internal visual imagery activated inferior parietal lobule, and external visual imagery activated temporal, but no occipital areas. Lastly, inconsistent neuroanatomical intraindividual differences per condition were found. These findings relative to recent biological evidence of imagery abilities are highlighted.