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Andrew D. Lyttle, Brian A. Blanksby, Bruce C. Elliott and David G. Lloyd

Thirty experienced male swimmers with body types ± 1 SD of the mean of selected body form parameters reported for elite male swimmers were recruited for the study. During three freestyle flip turns, selected kinetic, hydrodynamic, and kinematic variables of the push-off following a flip turn were recorded. Kinetics were recorded via a 2D vertically mounted forceplate that recorded peak push-off force and total impulse. The acceleration of each swimmer’s center of gravity and wall exit velocity were calculated from underwater videography. Hydrodynamic peak drag force and drag impulse were calculated from the kinetic and kinematic data using a derivative of Newton’s second law. A stepwise regression yielded peak drag force, peak propulsive force, and push-off time in the final regression equation (R = 0.80; R 2 = 0.64). Beta values indicated that the peak drag force carried the highest weighting of the three variables. The results of the stepwise regression indicated that a combination of a low peak drag force high peak propulsive force, and increased wall push-off time produced the fastest final push-off velocity.

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Andreas Schweizer and Robert Hudek

The aim was to investigate differences of the kinetics of the crimp and the slope grip used in rock climbing. Nine cadaver fingers were prepared and fixated with the proximal phalanx in a frame. The superficial (FDS) and deep (FDP) flexor tendons were loaded selectively and together with 40 N in the crimp grip (PIP joint flexed 90°/DIP joint hyperextended) and the slope grip position (<25° flexed/50° flexed respectively). Five different grip sizes were tested and the flexion force which was generated to the grip was measured. In the crimp grip the FDP generated more flexion force in small sized holds whereas the FDS generated more force in the larger holds. During the slope grip the FDP was more effective than the FDS. While both tendons were loaded, the flexion force was always greater during crimp grip compared with the slope grip. The FDP seems to be most important for very small holds using the crimp grip but also during slope grip holds whereas the FDS is more important for larger flat holds.

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Jessie M. Huisinga, Kendra K. Schmid, Mary L. Filipi and Nicholas Stergiou

Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience abnormal gait patterns and reduced physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if an elliptical exercise intervention for patients with MS would change joint kinetics during gait toward healthy control values. Gait analysis was performed on patients with MS (n = 24) before and after completion of 15 sessions of supervised exercise. Joint torques and powers were calculated, while also using walking velocity as a covariate, to determine the effects of elliptical exercise on lower extremity joint kinetics during gait. Results show that elliptical exercise significantly altered joint torques at the ankle and hip and joint powers at the ankle during stance. The change in joint power at the ankle indicates that, after training, patients with MS employed a walking strategy that is more similar to that of healthy young adults. These results support the use of elliptical exercise as a gait training tool for patients with MS.

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Joseph J. Crisco, Nikolas J. Osvalds and Michael J. Rainbow

addition, the swing used in the analysis did not hit a baseball. To the best of our knowledge, this was the only study that examined the kinetics of swinging a baseball bat. What effect a bat’s moments of inertia (MOI), swings across multiple batters, and swings of actual batted baseballs have on these

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Melitta A. McNarry

Pulmonary oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ) kinetics following the onset of constant work rate exercise provides a useful assessment of the integrated capacity of the organism to transport and utilizes O 2 to support the increased rate of energy turnover in the contracting myocytes ( 104 ). The onset of

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Thomas Dos’Santos, Paul A. Jones, Jonathan Kelly, John J. McMahon, Paul Comfort and Christopher Thomas

athletes. 19 Variations in IMTP kinetics reported across the literature may be partially explained by methodological differences. 2 , 8 , 13 , 16 , 18 Early research used a sampling frequency of 500 Hz and 600 Hz, 8 , 13 whereas more recent investigations have implemented a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz

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Kirsty Brock, Prokopios Antonellis, Matthew I. Black, Fred J. DiMenna, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M. Jones and Stephen J. Bailey

The transition from rest to exercise mandates an immediate increase in skeletal-muscle contractile activity and ATP turnover. In contrast, the rate of pulmonary oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ) increases with exponential response kinetics, 1 which closely reflects the kinetics of muscle V ˙ O 2 , 2

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Tatiane Piucco, Rogério Soares, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Guillaume Y. Millet and Juan M. Murias

The speed of adjustment of oxidative phosphorylation during the on-transient of exercise, that is, V ˙ O 2 kinetics, provides valuable information in relation to the instantaneous rate of aerobic and anaerobic energy transfer. 1 , 2 A faster V ˙ O 2 kinetics response implies a smaller oxygen

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Caroline Lisee, Tom Birchmeier, Arthur Yan, Brent Geers, Kaitlin O’Hagan, Callum Davis and Christopher Kuenze

improving their movement quality and reduce subsequent injury risk. 3 Unfortunately, these attempts to evaluate and intervene to improve movement patterns have significant shortcomings as they fail to consider the role that kinetics, such as loading characteristics, play in the risk of primary or secondary

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Wing-Kai Lam, Winson Chiu-Chun Lee, Wei Min Lee, Christina Zong-Hao Ma and Pui Wah Kong

Previous studies have shown that shoe bending stiffness was related to changes in joint kinematics and kinetics as well as athletic performance. 1 Increasing forefoot bending stiffness of a shoe, which can be achieved by inserting a forefoot plate or increasing the midsole hardness, has the