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Raki Kawama, Masamichi Okudaira, David H. Fukuda, Hirohiko Maemura, and Satoru Tanigawa

in knee-flexion angle. This result implies the possibility that the activation of each hamstring muscle could be selectively increased by changing the knee joint angle during isometric exercise. Meanwhile, the individual hamstring muscles are divided into several regions according to their multiple

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Jihong Park, Kyeongtak Song, and Sae Yong Lee

patterns due to joint cooling may receive excessive stress to musculoskeletal structures during high-velocity multi-joint movements such as landing, which can lead to an injury. 8 , 9 Results of previous reports on proprioceptive changes due to knee joint cooling are not consistent in that some reported a

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Karl Fullam, Brian Caulfield, Garrett F. Coughlan, Wayne McNulty, David Campbell, and Eamonn Delahunt

impairments that could contribute to lower-limb injury. 17 , 18 Decreased postural balance is a primary risk factor for knee joint injury. 19 Furthermore, Coughlan et al 20 recently recommended the utilization of dynamic postural balance testing as part of a weekly musculoskeletal screening assessment to

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Kyoungyoun Park-Braswell, Sandra J. Shultz, and Randy J. Schmitz

demonstrated to result in altered brain activation patterns during lower leg movement tasks. 6 This may indicate possible neuroplasticity in response to sensory alteration from the joint. It is understood that mechanoreceptors in the ACL respond to anterior knee joint loading. 4 Neuroimaging techniques such

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Guillaume Mornieux, Elmar Weltin, Monika Pauls, Franz Rott, and Albert Gollhofer

Lateral movements with changes of direction are common in many team sports such as soccer or handball. During cutting maneuvers, the athlete performs a complex dynamic task by quickly changing their direction of movement while securing their balance. Knee joint control is an essential requirement

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Christopher M. Saliba, Allison L. Clouthier, Scott C.E. Brandon, Michael J. Rainbow, and Kevin J. Deluzio

The onset and progression of knee osteoarthritis have been attributed to abnormal loading of the knee joint. 1 – 3 Clinical interventions, both surgical and noninvasive, aim to reduce medial compartment knee loads. 4 – 6 Gait retraining is a noninvasive intervention in the treatment of

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Komeil Dashti Rostami and Abbey Thomas

Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and subsequent repair both alter the mechanics of the knee joint. 1 More than 50% of highly active patients with an ACL injury who choose nonsurgical treatment (active rehabilitation alone) have successful 2-year outcomes and knee function comparable

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Lei Zhou, Marie-Anne Gougeon, and Julie Nantel

set at P  < .05 and Tukey procedures for multiple comparisons were used when needed. Results At the knee joint, we found main effects for both groups and conditions (Table  1 ). Comparisons between groups showed a main effect in energy absorption with the knee extensor muscles (K3). On the less

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Jereme B. Outerleys, Michael J. Dunbar, Glen Richardson, Cheryl L. Hubley-Kozey, and Janie L. Astephen Wilson

objective biomechanical measurement or monitoring. 7 , 8 Improvement in knee joint biomechanics is therefore overestimated or missed due to large improvements in more global outcomes such as pain and satisfaction. 9 , 10 Previous research investigations have shown improvements in knee biomechanics on a

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Joseph M. Hart, Jamie L. Leonard, and Christopher D. Ingersoll


Despite recent findings regarding lower extremity function after cryotherapy, little is known of the neuromuscular, kinetic, and kinematic changes that might occur during functional tasks.


To evaluate changes in ground-reaction forces, muscle activity, and knee-joint flexion during single-leg landings after 20-minute knee-joint cryotherapy.


1 × 4 repeated-measures, time-series design.


Research laboratory.

Patients or Other Participants:

20 healthy male and female subjects.


Subjects performed 5 single-leg landings before, immediately after, and 15 and 30 minutes after knee-joint cryo-therapy.

Main Outcome Measures:

Ground-reaction force, knee-joint flexion, and muscle activity of the gastrocnemius, hamstrings, quadriceps, and gluteus medius.


Cryotherapy did not significantly (P > .05) change maximum knee-joint flexion, vertical ground-reaction force, or average muscle activity during a single-leg landing.


Knee-joint cryotherapy might not place the lower extremity at risk for injury during landing.