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April Tripp and Terry L. Rizzo

This study assessed the affect of the label (i.e., CP) attached to a description of a child’s motor ability and teacher attributes on the variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TpB) on two groups of elementary teachers (label and no-label). Results from a Hotelling = s T2 MANOVA showed a labeling effect. Results from a simple linear regression procedure also showed that of the teacher attributes assessed, only perceived teaching competence (p < .01) predicted favorable intentions. Support for the TpB was demonstrated for the group with the label for the social normative component (p < .000). Further analyses showed that for the group that receive that label information, only the school principal (p < .05) was associated with favorable intentions.

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Kyle Pushkarenko, Janice Causgrove Dunn, and Donna L. Goodwin

). Researchers have also indicated that children labeled with ASD 1 are susceptible to physical activity decline due to their considerable difficulty engaging in physical activity where social skills, communication, and motor abilities are essential for prolonged participation ( Ayvazoglu et al., 2015

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Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Ryland Morgans, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust, and James P. Morton

to quantify the EE of a professional GK of the English Premier League (EPL) using the doubly labeled water method (DLW). The use of this technique is advantageous as it takes into account the total daily EE of players therefore encompassing those energetic actions (eg, diving, jumping, isometric

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Stephen D. Mellalieu, Sheldon Hanton, and Graham Jones

The purpose of this study was to extend the work of Jones and Hanton (2001) by examining differences in affective states of performers who reported facilitating or debilitating interpretations of symptoms associated with precompetitive anxiety. Competitive athletes (N = 229) completed state and trait versions of the CSAI-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990), including intensity and direction subscales (Jones & Swain, 1992) and an exploratory measure of precompetitive affective responses in preparation and competition. “Facilitators” reported significantly greater positive labeling of affective experiences than “debilitators,” while cognitive interpretations of symptoms were reported to change with regard to preparation for and actual performance. The findings further support the need to examine the labeling and measurement of precompetitive affective states.

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Michael I. Goran

The doubly labeled water technique represents an unobtrusive and noninvasive means to measure total daily energy expenditure in free-living human subjects who are unaware that energy expenditure is being measured. When combined with measurement of resting energy expenditure, the doubly labeled water technique can also be used to estimate energy expenditure related to physical activity. The relatively recent availability of the doubly labeled water technique in humans has led to several advances in the fundamental understanding of whole body energy metabolism in several important areas. The purpose of this paper is to review the areas in which the doubly labeled water technique has specifically advanced our understanding of whole-body energy metabolism in young children.

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Hiroyuki Sagayama, Genki Hamaguchi, Makiko Toguchi, Mamiko Ichikawa, Yosuke Yamada, Naoyuki Ebine, Yasuki Higaki, and Hiroaki Tanaka

Total daily energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity level (PAL) are important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The PAL of table tennis has been estimated to about 2.0: it is categorized as a moderateactivity sport (4.0 metabolic equivalents [METs]) in the Compendium of Physical Activities. However, modern table tennis makes high physiological demands. The aims of the current study were to examine (1) TEE and PAL of competitive table tennis players and (2) the physiological demands of various types of table tennis practice. In Experiment 1, we measured TEE and PAL in 10 Japanese college competitive table tennis players (aged 19.9 ± 1.1 years) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method during training and with an exercise training log and self-reported energy intake. TEE was 15.5 ± 1.9 MJ·day-1 (3695 ± 449 kcal·day-1); PAL was 2.53 ± 0.25; and the average training duration was 181 ± 38 min·day-1. In Experiment 2, we measured METs of five different practices in seven college competition players (20.6 ± 1.2 years). Three practices without footwork were 4.5–5.2 METs, and two practices with footwork were 9.5–11.5 METs. Table tennis practices averaged 7.1 ± 3.2 METS demonstrating similarities with other vigorous racket sports. In conclusion the current Compendium of Physical Activities underestimates the physiological demands of table tennis practice for competition; the estimated energy requirement should be based on DLW method data.

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Melanie Sartore and George Cunningham

The purpose of this inquiry was to explore the meanings and organizational implications of lesbianism and the lesbian label within the sport organization context. Fourteen faculty members from two health and kinesiology departments were asked how they, their colleagues, and their departments defined, responded to, coped with, and managed the lesbian label. First and foremost, the words of these faculty members identify the lesbian label as a component of a lesbian stigma at both the individual and departmental levels and within the field of health and kinesiology as a whole. The consequences of the stigma, however, varied by department suggesting the importance of departmental culture and atmosphere. Implications of these findings, as they pertain to sport managers, are discussed.

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Ricardo A. Tanhoffer, Aldre I.P. Tanhoffer, Jacqueline Raymond, Nathan A. Johnson, Andrew P. Hills, and Glen M. Davis

Background:

The objective of this study was to determine whether doubly labeled water (DLW) and a multi-sensor armband (SWA) could detect the variation in energy expenditure incurred by a period of increased exercise (EXE) versus a period of high sedentary activity (SED), in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).

Methods:

Eight participants with SCI were submitted to 2 testing periods of energy expenditure assessment: 1) a 14-day phase during which sedentary living conditions were imposed and 2) a 14-day phase during which an exercise training intervention was employed. For each phase, total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) were measured by DLW and SWA.

Results:

Mean TDEE assessed by DLW, was significantly higher during EXE versus SED (11,605 ± 2151 kJ·day-1 and 10,069 ± 2310 kJ·day-1). PAEE predicted by DLW was also significantly higher during EXE versus SED (5422 ± 2240 kJ·day-1 and 3855 ± 2496 kJ·day-1). SWA-predicted PAEE significantly underestimated PAEE measured by the DLW during SED and EXE.

Conclusion:

DLW is sensitive to detect variation in within-individual energy expenditure during voluntary increase in physical activity in individuals with SCI. SWA failed to detect statistically significant variations in energy expenditure between periods of high versus low activity in SCI.

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Nerissa Campbell, Anca Gaston, Casey Gray, Elaine Rush, Ralph Maddison, and Harry Prapavessis

Background:

Accurate assessment of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) among adolescents is important for surveillance, evaluating interventions, and understanding the relation between energy balance and normal physiological and behavioral growth and development. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-Enhancing Physical Activity (SQUASH)13 for measuring PAEE among adolescents.

Methods:

The participants were seventeen adolescents (9 females; Mean age = 17.53; SD = 0.62). Energy expenditure was measured during a 9-day period with doubly labeled water (DLW). The SQUASH was self-administered on the morning of the 10th day and assessed commuting activities, leisure time activities, household activities, and activities at work and school over the previous 9 days.

Results:

A Bland-Altman plot indicated that the SQUASH underestimated PAEE compared with DLW by a mean difference of 126 kcal·d−1 (95% limits of agreement: –1,207 to 1,459 kcal·d−1), representative of a 10% underestimation. The Spearman rank order correlation coefficient showed there was a significant association between the SQUASH and DLW (r = .50, P = .04), for estimating PAEE.

Conclusion:

When using a sample of highly active adolescents, the SQUASH is a valid self-report tool for measuring PAEE at the group and individual rank order level.

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Kathleen M. Laquale

Edited by Katie Walsh