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Donna L. Goodwin and Amanda Ebert

people, including parents, who negotiate daily exclusion if actionable change is to occur ( Aitchison, 2009 ; Allison, 2000 ). The labor disabled people and their families expend to participate in community programs is largely hidden from nondisabled people ( Dowling, 2015 ). The purpose of this study

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Jeremy J. Foreman, Joshua S. Bendickson and Birton J. Cowden

likely to follow its new rules and give those individuals hiring preferences. In effect, this creates “unwritten” rules to further enforce the firm objectives and culture within varying labor markets (e.g.,  Christensen, Dhaliwal, Boivie, & Graffin, 2015 ; Rivera, 2012 ). As it relates to the NFL

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R. Dale Sheptak Jr. and Brian E. Menaker

The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 has led to a collapse in the economic, governmental, and social structures that have defined globalized society in the 21st century. The hit to the labor market may be the most striking. In the first 6 weeks of the pandemic-forced restrictions, more than 30 million

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Nicholas Washburn and Ye Hoon Lee

Emotional labor is a process through which teachers regulate internal feelings to display situationally appropriate emotions ( Isenbarger & Zembylas, 2006 ). This process has a potential to help physical education (PE) teachers develop positive relationships with their students through an

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Rob Beamish

William J. Morgan has recently argued that the existing critical analyses of sport are in error because they cannot take into account the peculiar logic of sporting action. Although there are a number of points in Morgan’s argument with which one could take issue, in this paper I examine only one—his erroneously narrow reading of the concept of labor in Marx’s work. In the course of my argument, I show first that Marx’s conception of “labor in general” is not the narrow conception Morgan presents it as. I indicate how Marx’s conception of labor is indebted to Hegel’s Phänomenologie des Geistes and has a broadly creative dimension to it. Second, labor, as the source of use-values, is not necessarily the rational, instrumental activity Morgan implies, and sport labor within the political economy is not that much different from other forms of entertainment labor. Finally, I argue that Morgan’s claim that alienation is linked to solely those forms of praxis which become dehumanized through the increased instrumental rationality of capital is also an erroneously narrow reading of the conception.

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Mark Falcous and Joseph Maguire

This article addresses the global migration of sports labor. The contested presence of North American players in English basketball, first documented by Maguire (1988), is considered in the context of questions regarding the reception of migrants in local cultures. A 2-year ethnographic project incorporating participant observations, interviews, and focus groups investigated fans’ consumption of local basketball. Complex and nuanced interpretations of migrant players were evident. These were informed by local identities and civic pride, cultural stereotypes, and local experiences of spectating. Thus, the presence of migrant athletes is viewed specifically through the local lens—responses were shaped by the varying roles and interpretations of consuming basketball in the lives of local residents. Such observations reinforce the need for empirically grounded case studies to explore local consumption in light of the wider political–economic patterning of global sport.

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Yuki Kondo, Ryuichi Sawa, Aoi Ebina, Masayo Takada, Hiromi Fujii, Yoko Okuyama, Yuko Tanikawa, Kaoru Souke and Rei Ono


Physical activity during pregnancy has numerous benefits, but the influence on the duration of labor is unclear. We investigated the influence of habitual physical activity during late pregnancy on the duration of labor, with consideration of previous delivery experience and the stage of labor.


This prospective study included 103 women (48 nulliparous, 55 multiparous) in late pregnancy. Habitual physical activity was evaluated using the Baecke physical activity questionnaire (BQ). Women were divided into a high activity group (HA) and a low activity group (LA) based on their median total BQ score. Data pertaining to the duration of labor were obtained from the birth records after delivery.


In multiparous women, the duration of the second stage of labor was significantly shorter in the HA group than in the LA group [median (range): HA, 11 min (1–102 min); LA, 20 min (4–175 min); P < .05]. The significant difference persisted after adjusting for confounding variables (standardized β = –0.34; P = .01). In nulliparous women, there were no significant differences in duration of labor between groups.


Higher physical activity in multiparous women during late pregnancy might positively influence the duration of the second stage of labor.

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Jean Harvey and Maurice Saint-Germain

The main goal of this paper is to provide an analysis of the evolution of the international division of labor with regard to the sporting goods sector. Its purpose is also to assess which of the current dominant critical theories of the international division of labor most accurately describes the trends in the sporting goods sector. The first proposition examined here is that none of the current dominant critical theories of the international division of labor describes appropriately the trends of the last 20 years in sporting goods trade. The second proposition is that the evolution of the international division of labor in the sporting goods sector shows two trends that on the surface may appear contradictory: a regionalization, as well as a globalization of sporting goods trade. Twenty-eight countries were selected for the study. Data support both propositions. The paper ends with suggestions for further studies.

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Ellexis Boyle

This paper explores the ongoing construction of hockey in Canada through a textual analysis of the popular comedy, Goon (2012). Touted by its authors as “the Canadian sequel to Slap Shot” and “an homage to enforcers”, Goon is analyzed in relation to simmering debates about fighting in hockey as well as the broader crisis of employment and masculinity that characterize the sociopolitical milieu in which the film circulates. A crisis of masculinity narrative is found to emerge in and through a discourse about working-class labor that both celebrates and devalorizes violent labor and the capitalist relations in which it is embedded. The analysis provides insight into the interlocking relationships among texts and contexts as well as the role of sport films in perpetuating dominant ideologies about violent labor in hockey.

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Jennifer Smith Maguire

The contemporary United States fitness industry, in conjunction with the medical endorsement of exercise and the marketing of lifestyle consumption, has made possible the emergence and rapid growth of health and fitness services. This paper brings together the sociological fields of work, consumption, and physical culture, suggesting how the structure and organization of personal training impacts upon how fitness is sold. Drawing from interviews with personal trainers, the occupation is discussed as a combination of frontline service work, emotional labor, and flexible work strategies, resulting in a variety of job roles: the representation of the fitness club, the brokering of clients’ consumer relationships with the fitness industry, the motivation of clients through service relationships, and the entrepreneurial cultivation of a client base and semi-professional authority.