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Agency Theory and Principal–Agent Alignment Masks: An Examination of Penalties in the National Football League

Jeremy J. Foreman, Joshua S. Bendickson, and Birton J. Cowden

likely to follow its new rules and give those individuals hiring preferences. In effect, this creates “unwritten” rules to further enforce the firm objectives and culture within varying labor markets (e.g.,  Christensen, Dhaliwal, Boivie, & Graffin, 2015 ; Rivera, 2012 ). As it relates to the NFL

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Addressing Gender Inequity in Sport Through Women’s Invisible Labor

Katherine Sveinson, Elizabeth Taylor, Ajhanai C.I. Keaton, Laura Burton, Ann Pegoraro, and Kim Toffoletti

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to explore women’s invisible, unpaid, and emotional labor at the organizational meso-level to advance gender equity in sport. The construction and maintenance of gender inequity within sport organizational contexts has been well established (see Burton, 2015

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Physical Activity for Disabled Youth: Hidden Parental Labor

Donna L. Goodwin and Amanda Ebert

people, including parents, who negotiate daily exclusion if actionable change is to occur ( Aitchison, 2009 ; Allison, 2000 ). The labor disabled people and their families expend to participate in community programs is largely hidden from nondisabled people ( Dowling, 2015 ). The purpose of this study

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Unrealistic Expectations and Future Status Coercion in Minor League Baseball Players’ Future-Oriented Labor

Christopher M. McLeod, Nola Agha, N. David Pifer, and Tarlan Chahardovali

to pass the Save America’s Pastime Act, which exempted MLB from the Fair Labor Standards Act’s minimum wage and overtime requirements ( Blum, 2018 ). At the same time, the 20 most valuable minor league baseball franchises increased their value by 35% between 2013 and 2016, and the average MLB

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Manufacturing Dreams and Investing in Future Generations: Women Athletes’ Inspirational Labor in the Marketing and Promotion of Their Sport

Tarlan Chahardovali and Christopher M. McLeod

Previous sociological research on women’s labor in sport has largely focused on women’s work behind the scenes to support family members’ participation in sport ( Boyle & McKay, 1995 ; Messner & Bozada-Deas, 2009 ; Thompson, 1990 , 1999a , 1999b ). However, the labor of women athletes

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When Sport Event Work Stopped: Exposure of Sport Event Labor Precarity by the COVID-19 Pandemic

R. Dale Sheptak Jr. and Brian E. Menaker

The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 has led to a collapse in the economic, governmental, and social structures that have defined globalized society in the 21st century. The hit to the labor market may be the most striking. In the first 6 weeks of the pandemic-forced restrictions, more than 30 million

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Maternal Physical Activity at Term and Spontaneous Labor: A Case-Crossover Study

Alison K. Nulty, Marit L. Bovbjerg, David A. Savitz, Amy H. Herring, Chyrise B. Bradley, and Kelly R. Evenson

States is characterized by an overuse of medical interventions, such as induction of labor and cesarean birth. 8 While these interventions are often necessary—the ideal rate of cesarean, for instance, is not zero, but rather between 10% and 15%, depending on patient risk profiles 9 , 10 —there is

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Understanding Emotional Labor in Relation to Physical Educators’ Perceived Organizational Support, Affective Commitment, and Job Satisfaction

K. Andrew R. Richards, Nicholas Washburn, and Ye Hoon Lee

Emotional labor is a process through which teachers regulate internal feelings to display situationally appropriate emotions ( Isenbarger & Zembylas, 2006 ). This process has a potential to help physical education (PE) teachers develop positive relationships with their students through an

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Internationalization of the Sport Management Labor Market and Curriculum Perspectives: Insights From Germany, Norway, and Spain

Olivia Wohlfart, Sandy Adam, Jorge García-Unanue, Gregor Hovemann, Berit Skirstad, and Anna-Maria Strittmatter

Globalization and internationalization affect industries across all fields and sectors. 1 Danylchuk, Doherty, Nicholson, and Stewart ( 2008 ) refer to the sport industry as the “global sport village” (p. 126). The labor market in sport management is growing and changing, promoted by

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“I Just Don’t Wanna Deal With the Headache of People Fighting Over the Internet”: A Study of Sponsored Female Climbers’ Digital Labor

Katariina Rahikainen and Kim Toffoletti

( Mogaji et al., 2020 ) yet, to date, little attention has been paid to the gender dynamics informing sponsored women climbers decision making on social media. The focus of this study is on women athletes’ experiences of using social media for commercial purposes, and the gendered digital labor undertaken