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Xiaochen Zhou, Daniel C. Funk, Lu Lu, and Thilo Kunkel

conceptual and methodological supports to examine the relationships between activewear and consumer values. Means-End Chain Theory The MEC theory, along with its affiliated laddering method, has been widely utilized in both academic and industry market research, such as market segmentation, product

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Bouwien Smits-Engelsman, Wendy Aertssen, and Emmanuel Bonney

children integrating the perceptual and motor control elements thought to be critical for agility performance. In this study, we report the outcome of a study examining the reliability and validity of a novel agility test called the Ladder Agility Test (LAT). The LAT is a field-based test, which requires

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Timothy J.L. Chandler, Stacey L. Lane, Janice M. Bibik, and Bernard Oliver

Recent concern over the quality of teachers staffing the nation’s schools has prompted widespread development of educational reform packages designed to improve the teaching profession. Stemming from this effort has been the notion that a teaching career must be structured as a career ladder, progressing from informal elementary instructional tasks to full-time responsibilities in the gymnasium. In this paper we discuss some of the assumptions underlying career ladders in order to highlight their strengths and, more particularly, their weaknesses. We suggest that career ladders address not the true needs of teachers but rather the evaluation needs of administrators. As such, career ladders are not a good means of promoting teacher development. We offer the notion of the career lattice as an alternative means of meeting the motivational needs of teachers.

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Tim J. Gabbett


A limitation of most rugby league time–motion studies is that researchers have examined the demands of single teams, with no investigations of all teams in an entire competition. This study investigated the activity profiles and technical and tactical performances of successful and less-successful teams throughout an entire rugby league competition.


In total, 185 rugby league players representing 11 teams from a semiprofessional competition participated in this study. Global positioning system analysis was completed across the entire season. Video footage from individual matches was also coded via notational analysis for technical and tactical performance of teams.


Trivial to small differences were found among Top 4, Middle 4, and Bottom 4 teams for absolute and relative total distances covered and distances covered at low speeds. Small, nonsignificant differences (P = .054, ES = 0.31) were found between groups for the distance covered sprinting, with Top 4 teams covering greater sprinting distances than Bottom 4 teams. Top 4 teams made more meters in attack and conceded fewer meters in defense than Bottom 4 teams. Bottom 4 teams had a greater percentage of slow play-the-balls in defense than Top 4 teams (74.8% ± 7.3% vs 67.2% ± 8.3%). Middle 4 teams showed the greatest reduction in high-speed running from the first to the second half (–20.4%), while Bottom 4 teams completed 14.3% more high-speed running in the second half than in the first half.


These findings demonstrate that a combination of activity profiles and technical and tactical performance are associated with playing success in semiprofessional rugby league players.

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Jennifer Ann McGetrick, Krystyna Kongats, Kim D. Raine, Corinne Voyer, and Candace I.J. Nykiforuk

, 13 leading to the development of tools such as the Nuffield Council on Bioethics’ (NCB) intervention ladder 14 framework to categorize public health interventions according to their effect on individual autonomy. As policy influencers ultimately determine whether healthy public policies are enacted

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Leanne Norman

remain or climb the ladder within sports coaching as men (in this case—we do not have the research from a coach development perspective) (e.g.,  Cunningham & Sagas, 2003 ; Sagas, Cunningham, & Pastore, 2006 ). Instead, how organizations foster and nurture a climate that incentivizes women to want to

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Federico Donghi, Ermanno Rampinini, Andrea Bosio, Maurizio Fanchini, Domenico Carlomagno, and Nicola A. Maffiuletti

(weight disc plate; TechnoGym, Cesena, Italy), performed as fast as possible, with 20 seconds of recovery between each set. Immediately after, they performed 6 × 5-m speed ladder drills followed by all-out shuttle sprints over a distance of 10 + 10 m, with a 180° change of direction and 20 seconds of

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Glenna G. Bower

While scholars have focused their attention on women working in management positions within several segments of the sport industry, limited research has been done within the health and fitness industry. The purpose of this study provided career path information and advice to women pursuing a management position within the health and fitness industry. The participants were 480female managers who were distributed the Career Paths of Women in Sports Survey in eliciting responses related to their career paths and career advice. Means were calculated for the quantitative data. A three-step content-analytic procedure was used to analyze the qualitative data. The practical information focused on women climbing the ladder from an entry-level position to the management position they are in today. Career advice included, but was not limited to, continuing education, staying up-to-date on certifications, gaining practical experience, networking, and obtaining a mentor.

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David B. Klenosky, Thomas J. Templin, and Josh A. Troutmam

This paper reports the results of an empirical study that draws on a means-end perspective to examine the factors influencing the school choice decisions of collegiate student athletes. A sample of 27 NCAA Division I collegiate football players were questioned to identify the attributes that differentiated the school they selected from the others they had considered attending. The interviewing technique known as laddering was then used to link the salient attributes of the chosen school to the consequences and personal values important to the athlete. An analysis of the resulting data provided unique insight into the means-end relationships that underlie students' selection of competing athletic programs. A discussion of the study findings outlined the implications of this investigation and the means-end approach for future recruiting and research efforts.

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Massimo Venturelli, David Bishop, and Lorenzo Pettene

Young soccer players are usually trained with adult-training methods, even though the physiological adaptations are likely to be very different compared with adults. In contrast, some have suggested training preadolescents only with coordination training. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether coordination or repeated-sprint training better improved speed over 20 m, with and without the ball. Sixteen soccer players (mean age 11 ± 0.5 y) were randomly assigned to a sprint-training group (STG = 7) or a coordination-training group (CTG = 9). The STG trained twice a week for 12 wk and performed 20 repetitions of 20- and 10-m sprints; the CTG performed coordination training (eg, speed ladder running) for the same training duration. Maximal jump height, anthropometric measures, and 20-m sprint time, with and without ball, were evaluated before and after the training period. Statistical significance was determined using two-way ANOVA with repeated measure and Pearson test for correlation. Both groups improved speed without the ball: STG = 3.75 ± 0.10 s to 3.66 ± 0.09 s (P < .05); CTG = 3.64 ± 0.13 s to 3.56 ± 0.13 s (P < .05), with no difference between groups. Sprint time with the ball pre- and posttraining was 4.06 ± 0.11 s and 4.05 ± 0.19 s (P > .05) for STG and 4.04 ± 0.12 s and 3.82 ± 0.15 s (P < .05) for CTG, with a significant difference between groups posttraining (P < .05). There were significant correlations between sprint time without ball, CMJ, and SJ. These data suggest that coordination training increases the speed with the ball more than typical repeated-sprint training. It can be hypothesized that running speed with ball improved more in CTG because this particular action requires improvements in coordination.