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Michael Ashford, Andrew Abraham, and Jamie Poolton

taken a mediating position to develop a communal language that is housed by a unified conceptual framework for team player decision making. In doing so, we hope this paper provides an aide memoire to make potentially valuable research more accessible to coaches. Three Research Perspectives on Player

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Sarah Wolter

espnW is ESPN, Inc.’s, first entity targeted at female fans and female athletes. espnW portrays female athletes as competent sportswomen and serious competitors as measured by quantitative analysis of photographs and articles on the site. A more critical look at the discourse, however, reveals 2 major themes. First, divergent dialogues are used in espnW articles to reify relations of power and privilege for male athletes. Divergent dialogues appear in articles on espnW in the forms of descriptive language used for female athletes, mention of nonsporting topics that have little or nothing to do with athleticism, and direct references to physical/personality attributes. Second, positioning espnW as “additive content” to ESPN for female fans relies on ideas of natural sexual difference and choice. If the institution of sport is defined by masculinity and partially upheld by traditional sports journalism, women are excluded.

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Clara Teixidor-Batlle, Carles Ventura Vall-llovera, Justine J. Reel, and Ana Andrés

example, cheerleading, swimming, or synchronized skating ( Reel & Gill, 1996 ). The attempt to standardize a weight pressures measure across sports originated with the validation of the English-language version of the weight pressures in sport for female athletes (WPS-F; Reel, Petrie, SooHoo, & Anderson

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Ramesh Kaipa, Bethany Howard, Roha Kaipa, Eric Turcat, and Laurielle Prema

compared with the students in the massed practice group. Another study by Bloom and Shuell ( 1981 ) evaluated the benefits of distributed and massed practice on learning foreign language vocabulary. Fifty-two students were randomly assigned to distributed and massed practice groups. Both the groups

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James Dimmock, David Simich, Timothy Budden, Leslie Podlog, Mark Beauchamp, and Ben Jackson

( Dimmock et al., 2015 ). To illustrate, although an exercise advertisement may include compelling arguments about a class or program, participants may dislike something about the source of, or language used in, the message. Message recipients may, therefore, find themselves in a situation where they hold

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Lorraine S. Wallace, Kenneth Bielak, and Brian Linn

Background:

We evaluated readability and related features of English-language instructions accompanying pedometers, including reading grade level, layout/formatting characteristics, and emphasis of key points.

Methods:

We identified 15 pedometers currently available for purchase in the US. Reading grade level was calculated using Flesch-Kinkaid (FK) and SMOG formulas. Text point size was measured with a C-Thru Ruler. Page and illustration dimensions were measured to the nearest millimeter (mm) with a standard ruler. Layout features were evaluated using the criteria from the User-Friendliness Tool.

Results:

FK scores ranged from 8th to 11th grade, while SMOG scores ranged from 8th to 12th grade. Text point size averaged 6.9 ± 1.9 (range = 4−11). Instructions averaged 8.7 ± 9.0 (range = 0−36) illustrations, most about the size of a US quarter. While many instructions avoided use of specialty fonts (n = 12; 80.0%), most used a minimal amount of white space. Just 4 (26.7%) sets of instructions highlighted the target goal of 10,000 steps-per-day.

Conclusion:

Pedometer instructions should be revised to meet the recommended 6th grade reading level. Paper size instructions are printed on should be enlarged, thereby allowing for larger text and illustrations, and additional white space. Recommended number of steps per day and proper pedometer positioning should also be predominantly highlighted.

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Jeffrey O. Segrave

This paper explores the use of the sports metaphor in the language of sexual relations. Data were collected from a questionnaire administered to a select sample of 127 undergraduate students. The results indicated widespread familiarity and use of this type of language, especially among males. Far from being innocuous, the use of the sports metaphor in this intimate area of life operates as a subtle, yet powerful component of a larger cultural discourse that contributes to the social construction of male hegemony in society. In particular, “sportspeak” in the language of sexual relations functions as a mechanism for transforming a human relations issue into a technical problem, for objectifying women, and for constructing notions of masculine hegemony and hegemonic masculinity.

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Israel M. Gelfand and Mark L. Latash

An adequate language is a prerequisite for progress in any area of science, including movement science. Notions of structural units and synergies and the principle of minimal interaction are revisited, discussed, and illustrated with a few examples from recent studies. Equilibrium-point hypothesis is considered an example of identifying significant variables in the control of a voluntary movement.

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Raymond L. Schmitt

The introduction of “replacement teams” into the social world of NFL football during the 1987 strike stimulated a laminated language, a language that transformed traditional meanings by linking varying social definitions to one another. Emergent content analysis of extensive newspaper, sport magazine and newsmagazine, and live television and radio accounts was used to inductively study this language. Power, media, and social structure impacted on the various language terms that were created. Laminated language protected, rejected, accepted, satirically extended, and integrated definitions. Various ways in which the recognition of laminated language may be used to enhance the use of Goffman’s framing concepts and leads in the sociological study of everyday life are offered.

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Iain Greenlees, Richard Buscombe, Richard Thelwell, Tim Holder, and Matthew Rimmer

The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a tennis player’s body language and clothing (general vs. sport-specific) on the impressions observers form of them. Forty male tennis players viewed videos of a target tennis player warming up. Each participant viewed the target player displaying one of four combinations of body language and clothing (positive body language/tennis-specific clothing; positive body language/general sportswear; negative body language/tennis-specific clothing; negative body language/general sportswear). After viewing the target player, participants rated their impressions of the model’s episodic states and dispositions and gave their perceptions of the likely outcome of a tennis match with the target player. Analyses of variance revealed that positive body language led to favorable episodic impressions and low outcome expectations. Analysis also indicated that clothing and body language had an interactive effect on dispositional judgments. The study supports the contention that nonverbal communication can influence sporting interactions.