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Sungho Cho, J. Lucy Lee, June Won, and Jong Kwan (Jake) Lee

The enforcement of trademark rights is a crucial practice for sport organizations’ brand management ( George, 2005 ; Le Péru, 2004 ; Ohm, 2013 ). Pursuant to the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1151 et seq., which set federal trademark law, the owner of a legally protected mark may bring legal claim

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Janelle Griffo, Kahyun Nam, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Kulinna, and Allison Ross

mandates that Arizona public and charter elementary schools (K–5) provide at least two recess periods per day (without a time requirement) ( State of Arizona Senate, 2018 ). This law is critical to increase PA and show the importance of recess while also preventing it from being withheld. Moreover, this

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Tracy Nau, William Bellew, Billie Giles-Corti, Adrian Bauman, and Ben J. Smith

, allocate resources to enable action, and put in place enablers and controls that directly influence individuals, organizations and environments. Laws, which can comprise legislation, regulation, standards, and other instruments, are a powerful policy lever by virtue of their government imprimatur

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Hannah R. Thompson, Bhaani K. Singh, Annie Reed, Robert García, Monica Lounsbery, Benjamin D. Winig, and Kristine A. Madsen

2016, 19 states (38%) had education laws mandating a minimum number of PE minutes students should receive. 15 For example, in California, the state with the largest number of public school students, the mandate for elementary students is 200 minutes of PE every 10 days (the equivalent of an average of

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Robert D’Amico

The psychological and social sciences search for laws of human behavior. Traditionally, this search has been seen as an empirical or methodological issue. But the philosophers Donald Davidson and John Searle have each argued that such laws are conceptually impossible. If their views are sound, the search for social or psychological laws is not merely very difficult, it is futile. Their cases against such laws are outlined; however, neither Davidson nor Searle has supported the radical version of his conclusion—that psychological and social sciences cannot be sciences. Some concluding comments on the nature of modem philosophy and philosophical debate are provided.

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Samuel T. Howe, Robert J. Aughey, William G. Hopkins, and Andrew M. Stewart

Power law analysis has been recently applied in professional soccer 1 , 2 and in rugby league 3 to quantify peak intensities and the rate of decline of peak exercise intensity as a function of time during competition 1 and training. 2 Power law analysis has also been used to assess youth soccer

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Kelly J. Cole

In the target article Mark Latash has argued that there is but a single bona-fide theory for hand motor control (referent configuration theory). If this is true, and research is often phenomenological, then we must admit that the science of hand motor control is immature. While describing observations under varying conditions is a crucial (but early) stage of the science of any field, it is also true that the key to maturing any science is to vigorously subject extant theories and budding laws to critical experimentation. If competing theories are absent at the present time is it time for scientists to focus their efforts on maturing the science of hand motor control through critical testing of this long-standing theory (and related collections of knowledge such as the uncontrolled manifold)?

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Mark L. Latash

Living systems may be defined as systems able to organize new, biology-specific, laws of physics and modify their parameters for specific tasks. Examples include the force-length muscle dependence mediated by the stretch reflex, and the control of movements with modification of the spatial referent coordinates for salient performance variables. Low-dimensional sets of referent coordinates at a task level are transformed to higher-dimensional sets at lower hierarchical levels in a way that ensures stability of performance. Stability of actions can be controlled independently of the actions (e.g., anticipatory synergy adjustments). Unintentional actions reflect relaxation processes leading to drifts of corresponding referent coordinates in the absence of changes in external load. Implications of this general framework for movement disorders, motor development, motor skill acquisition, and even philosophy are discussed.

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Sam C. Ehrlich, Joe Sabin, and Neal C. Ternes

concerns about the proliferation of athlete NIL opportunities without also allowing for athlete employment under federal wage-and-hour law. In doing so, we consider various longstanding ethical issues unique to the college sports labor market alongside new concerns raised by gig economy models, debating

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Susan C. Brown

The value of a liability waiver in a court of law is commonly questioned. This manuscript examines case law and how the courts have dealt with injury suits when a liability waiver or similar form is involved. This examination is followed by a brief summary of the findings that discusses the commonalities among valid waivers. Also included is a brief overview of ’ the terms waiver, disclaimer, release, exculpatory agreement, assumption of risk, and agreement to participate, which are often used interchangeably and sometimes incorrectly.