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Rachel Arnold, David Fletcher and Jennifer A. Hobson

of their leaders’ and managers’ characteristics, including negatively valenced and socially undesirable traits, in sport contexts. This is surprising given that, according to contemporary performance- and sport-specific theories (cf.  Fletcher & Arnold, 2015 ; Welty Peachey, Zhou, Damon, & Burton

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Edward Hebert

Among the many concerns of university leaders, faculty morale and job satisfaction are important but often overlooked. Morale is associated with faculty perceptions of their department, university, and peers and influences their interactions with each other, staff, and students. Job satisfaction

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Mark Stanbrough

NASPE has developed national standards for coaches with Standard 8 focusing on providing athletes with responsibility and leadership opportunities as they mature. Standard 8 states that coaches should engage athletes in opportunities that nurture leadership and teamwork, which can be learned on the field and exhibited in life. It further states that sports provide an atmosphere for trial and error through practice and competition. Much is expected of team leaders; however, few of them are ever formally taught the leadership skills they need to perform effectively. Like physical skills, leadership skills must be systematically taught, developed, and practiced. Through a structured leadership program, some of the trial and error can be eliminated. High school cross country athletes (N=8) participated in an eight-week structured leadership program. The program met once a week, with each athlete leading a weekly session and the coach serving as a moderator. The topics addressed were: understanding the rewards, risks and responsibilities of leadership, leading by example, and vocal leadership. The athletes also spent five hours performing a community leadership service project and attended a leadership lecture presented by a national expert. There was a significant improvement between a pre and post self-rated Team Leadership Evaluation survey (Janssen, 2007). The athletes felt the program was effective, as they were able to develop insights and leadership skills needed to be more effective leaders.

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Lindsey Cox, Victoria Berends, James F. Sallis, Jessica Marie St. John, Betsy McNeil, Martin Gonzalez and Peggy Agron

Background:

Most youth are not meeting physical activity guidelines, and schools are a key venue for providing physical activity. School districts can provide physical activity opportunities through the adoption, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies. This paper reports results of a 2009 survey of California school governance leaders on the barriers and opportunities to providing school-based physical activity and strategies to promote adoption of evidence-based policies.

Methods:

California school board members (n = 339) completed an 83 item online survey about policy options, perceptions, and barriers to improving physical activity in schools.

Results:

Board members’ highest rated barriers to providing physical activity were budget concerns, limited time in a school day, and competing priorities. The key policy opportunities to increase physical activity were improving the quantity and quality of physical education, integrating physical activity throughout the school day, supporting active transportation to/from school, providing access to physical activity facilities during nonschool hours, and integrating physical activity into before/after school programs.

Conclusions:

Survey findings were used to develop policy resources and trainings for school governance leaders that provide a comprehensive approach to improving physical activity in schools.

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Duane Knudson

Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) codes were designed to report outcomes in higher education by specific disciplines and professions, however, universities, states, and accreditation bodies also use these codes in other ways. This paper describes CIP-2010 usage in higher education and how these codes are used in funding public universities in Texas, and summarizes the American Kinesiology Association/National Academy of Kinesiology recommendations to the National Center for Education Statistics on updating kinesiology-related CIP codes. Kinesiology leaders should be knowledgeable about how CIP codes are often used behind the scenes in a variety of ways that affect our faculty, programs, and the field. Greater use of the term kinesiology in many future CIP codes would benefit the field and individual departments seeking alignment with institutional priorities.

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Sara Wilcox, Melinda Forthofer, Patricia A. Sharpe and Brent Hutto

Background:

Walking interventions delivered by lay leaders have been shown to be effective. Knowing the characteristics of individuals who volunteer to be group leaders in walking programs could facilitate more efficient and effective recruitment and training.

Methods:

Walking group leaders were recruited into a community-based program and formed walking groups from existing social networks. Leaders and members completed a survey, participated in physical measurements, and wore an accelerometer. Regression models (adjusting for group clustering and covariates) tested psychosocial and behavioral differences between leaders and members.

Results:

The sample included 296 adults (86% women, 66% African American). Leaders (n = 60) were similar to members (n = 236) with respect to most sociodemographic and health characteristics, but were significantly older and more likely to report arthritis and high cholesterol (P-values < .05). Although leaders and members were similar in sedentary behavior and physical activity, leaders reported higher levels of exercise self-regulation, self-efficacy, and social support (P-values < .01). Leaders also reported greater use of outdoor trails (P = .005) and other outdoor recreation areas (P = .003) for physical activity than members.

Conclusion:

Although walking group leaders were no more active than members, leaders did display psychosocial characteristics and behaviors consistent with a greater readiness for change.

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Alison J. Doherty

This study examined the effect of various leader characteristics on the transformational/transactional leader behavior (Bass, 1985) and impact of interuniversity athletic administrators (n = 32), as rated by their coaches (n = 114). Gender, age, education, administrative experience, and athletic/coaching experience were examined as possible antecedents to leader behavior (Chelladurai, 1980,1993). These characteristics reflect life experiences (Avolio & Gibbons, 1988) and common indicators of occupational development of athletic administrators (e.g., Barr, 1995; Quarterman, 1992; Williams & Miller, 1983). Leader behavior was measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Bass & Avolio, 1991b). Differences in transformational/transactional leader behavior were observed for the leader characteristics of gender and age, where female and younger athletic administrators were found to exhibit transformational leader behavior more often, and transactional leader behavior less often, than their male and older counterparts, respectively. Gender and age also were associated with the coaches' perception of leader effectiveness and their frequency of extra effort.

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Dina Bell-Laroche, Joanne MacLean, Lucie Thibault and Richard Wolfe

This study examined sport leaders’ perceptions of the use of stated values in the management and performance of their organization. Qualitative data were collected from nine Canadian national sport organizations (NSOs) in a multiple-case studies design, involving analysis of interview transcripts. Results indicated that while many of the NSOs operated from a traditional management by objectives approach, they perceived management by values (MBV) as being important and contributing to enhanced organizational performance. Leaders indicated that more efforts to engage staff members in developing core organizational values and to strategically use values in day-to-day management practice were required. A 4-I Framework describing how an NSO can progress through different stages of strategically using values in management practice was developed. NSO leaders also voiced an interest in embedding organizational values into NSO strategic and other planning processes.

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Dallas Branch Jr.

Intercollegiate athletics has come under increasing scrutiny. Questions of leadership and the NCAA’s Presidents’ Commission reflect new levels of exposure and commitment to clean the athletic house. The problem of defining the academic/athletic balance in big-time college sports has polarized faculty, administrators, and athletic leaders at many colleges and universities. The purpose of this study was to examine athletic director and selected assistant perceptions of leader behavior to determine whether their perceptions contributed significantly to the prediction of intercollegiate organizational effectiveness. Findings indicate that effective athletic organizations have leaders who are more predisposed to goal and task accomplishment than to developing good interpersonal relationships with their subordinates. Contemporary leadership theory and management philosophy suggests that organizations that can accomplish both are most effective. Athletic directors may want to adjust their leadership behaviors to meet the managerial demands of today’s intercollegiate athletic program.

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Tiffanye M. Vargas, Robbi Beyer and Margaret M. Flores

Within youth sport, there is a clear need for improved coaching education and coaching resources. Most youth sport coaches recreational leaders are generally recruited from the community based on their availability and volunteerism (McCallister, Blinde, & Kolenbrander, 2000). While these individuals often have the best interests of participants in mind, it is difficult to ask/require a volunteer to pursue specific sport training, when they are often already pressed for time. However, with the continued growth of online resources, and the convenience the internet affords, it may be a viable option to offer online coaching resources to assist volunteer coaches and recreational leaders. Therefore, the purpose of this poster presentation is to discuss and explore volunteer youth sport coaches’ and recreational leaders’ opinions of website resources. One hundred and sixteen volunteer coaches and recreational leaders completed an 11 item survey assessing their opinions on website resources. Coaches were from a large Southwestern city and represented multiple sports including football, soccer, volleyball, cheerleading, and basketball. Results indicated that overall, participants held positive opinions regarding websites as a resource and a means for providing needed and novel information to coaches. However, they only marginally agreed that a website was the most effective method of teaching coaches and recreation leaders. Participants suggested a preference for learning material through seminars and workshops. Future research should continue to address the feasibility and limitations of online resources for coaches. As well, as technology continues to evolve, researchers should begin to address the helpfulness of social media and smartphone apps as instructional aids and resources for coaches.