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Rachel Arnold, David Fletcher, and Jennifer A. Hobson

of their leaders’ and managers’ characteristics, including negatively valenced and socially undesirable traits, in sport contexts. This is surprising given that, according to contemporary performance- and sport-specific theories (cf.  Fletcher & Arnold, 2015 ; Welty Peachey, Zhou, Damon, & Burton

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Edward Hebert

Among the many concerns of university leaders, faculty morale and job satisfaction are important but often overlooked. Morale is associated with faculty perceptions of their department, university, and peers and influences their interactions with each other, staff, and students. Job satisfaction

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Shannon Kerwin and Kirsty Spence

program upon graduating, creates the potential to develop curricula targeted toward students’ vertical development and the development of their self-efficacy and themselves as leaders. This focus on development is a “crucial” undertaking, considering “the complexity and interconnected nature of the

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Sara Kramers, Camille Sabourin, Laura Martin, and Martin Camiré

positive development, nor to supporting newcomers’ resettlement processes ( Spaaij, 2011 ), youth sport leaders must be intentional in their delivery of quality programming ( Ha & Lyras, 2013 ). Quality Sport Programming for Newcomer Youth Quality is conceptualized as one of the best predictors of positive

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Moe Machida-Kosuga

–behavioral model ( Smoll & Smith, 1989 ), and the full range leadership model ( Bass & Riggio, 2000 ). Through the history of practices on coaches’ professional development, practitioners have continued to explore “How do coaches become effective leaders?” and “How can coaches be developed as leaders?” However

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Edson Filho

platform to capture optimal and suboptimal performance experiences, and estimate within-team performance fluctuations, psycho–bio–social synchrony levels, and leader–follower dynamics in teams. Shared Mental Models The shared mental model consists of different types of knowledge (know–what, know–why, know

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Mark Stanbrough

NASPE has developed national standards for coaches with Standard 8 focusing on providing athletes with responsibility and leadership opportunities as they mature. Standard 8 states that coaches should engage athletes in opportunities that nurture leadership and teamwork, which can be learned on the field and exhibited in life. It further states that sports provide an atmosphere for trial and error through practice and competition. Much is expected of team leaders; however, few of them are ever formally taught the leadership skills they need to perform effectively. Like physical skills, leadership skills must be systematically taught, developed, and practiced. Through a structured leadership program, some of the trial and error can be eliminated. High school cross country athletes (N=8) participated in an eight-week structured leadership program. The program met once a week, with each athlete leading a weekly session and the coach serving as a moderator. The topics addressed were: understanding the rewards, risks and responsibilities of leadership, leading by example, and vocal leadership. The athletes also spent five hours performing a community leadership service project and attended a leadership lecture presented by a national expert. There was a significant improvement between a pre and post self-rated Team Leadership Evaluation survey (Janssen, 2007). The athletes felt the program was effective, as they were able to develop insights and leadership skills needed to be more effective leaders.

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Lindsey Cox, Victoria Berends, James F. Sallis, Jessica Marie St. John, Betsy McNeil, Martin Gonzalez, and Peggy Agron

Background:

Most youth are not meeting physical activity guidelines, and schools are a key venue for providing physical activity. School districts can provide physical activity opportunities through the adoption, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies. This paper reports results of a 2009 survey of California school governance leaders on the barriers and opportunities to providing school-based physical activity and strategies to promote adoption of evidence-based policies.

Methods:

California school board members (n = 339) completed an 83 item online survey about policy options, perceptions, and barriers to improving physical activity in schools.

Results:

Board members’ highest rated barriers to providing physical activity were budget concerns, limited time in a school day, and competing priorities. The key policy opportunities to increase physical activity were improving the quantity and quality of physical education, integrating physical activity throughout the school day, supporting active transportation to/from school, providing access to physical activity facilities during nonschool hours, and integrating physical activity into before/after school programs.

Conclusions:

Survey findings were used to develop policy resources and trainings for school governance leaders that provide a comprehensive approach to improving physical activity in schools.

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Sara Wilcox, Melinda Forthofer, Patricia A. Sharpe, and Brent Hutto

Background:

Walking interventions delivered by lay leaders have been shown to be effective. Knowing the characteristics of individuals who volunteer to be group leaders in walking programs could facilitate more efficient and effective recruitment and training.

Methods:

Walking group leaders were recruited into a community-based program and formed walking groups from existing social networks. Leaders and members completed a survey, participated in physical measurements, and wore an accelerometer. Regression models (adjusting for group clustering and covariates) tested psychosocial and behavioral differences between leaders and members.

Results:

The sample included 296 adults (86% women, 66% African American). Leaders (n = 60) were similar to members (n = 236) with respect to most sociodemographic and health characteristics, but were significantly older and more likely to report arthritis and high cholesterol (P-values < .05). Although leaders and members were similar in sedentary behavior and physical activity, leaders reported higher levels of exercise self-regulation, self-efficacy, and social support (P-values < .01). Leaders also reported greater use of outdoor trails (P = .005) and other outdoor recreation areas (P = .003) for physical activity than members.

Conclusion:

Although walking group leaders were no more active than members, leaders did display psychosocial characteristics and behaviors consistent with a greater readiness for change.

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Duane Knudson

Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) codes were designed to report outcomes in higher education by specific disciplines and professions, however, universities, states, and accreditation bodies also use these codes in other ways. This paper describes CIP-2010 usage in higher education and how these codes are used in funding public universities in Texas, and summarizes the American Kinesiology Association/National Academy of Kinesiology recommendations to the National Center for Education Statistics on updating kinesiology-related CIP codes. Kinesiology leaders should be knowledgeable about how CIP codes are often used behind the scenes in a variety of ways that affect our faculty, programs, and the field. Greater use of the term kinesiology in many future CIP codes would benefit the field and individual departments seeking alignment with institutional priorities.